According to WebMD, fluid around the heart can indicate pericardial effusion, which is also known as pericarditis. Fluid fills the sac surrounding the heart, the pericardium, and causes symptoms including fever, fatigue and shortness of breath. Viral infections are the leading cause of pericarditis, but there are other, less-common causes that patients can suffer from.Know More
The Mayo Clinic explains that the pericardium usually contains two or three tablespoons of pericardial fluid, which allows the heart to move freely as it beats. Small pericardial effusions may contain up to 100 millilitres of fluid, whereas more severe cases can involve as much as 2 liters. Pericardial effusions usually occur as a result of inflammation, which causes excess fluid production. Viruses like coxsackievirus and HIV are among the leading causes. Other causes include autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, a reaction to heart surgery, underactive thyroid or trauma to the heart.
Patients suffering from pericarditis experience a range of symptoms, explains the Mayo Clinic, including feeling short of breath, feeling uncomfortable when lying down or chest pain at any time, coughing, a low-grade fever, fainting and a rapid heart rate. Patients experiencing these symptoms should see a physician, and those who experience chest pain and difficulty breathing should call 911, as such symptoms can indicate a cardiac emergency.Learn more about Diagnostics & Imaging
Common causes for distended neck veins include pulmonary embolism, constrictive pericarditis and a failing right side of the heart, according to Right Diagnosis. Distended neck veins can also be caused by pericardial effusion, restrictive cardiomyopathy or ventricular tachycardia.Full Answer >
The difference between a spinal tap and an epidural lies in the location where the medication or anesthesia is injected into the body, as an epidural is when the medication or anesthesia is injected into the epidural space, which is right outside of the sac of fluid surrounding the spinal cord; the spinal tap is when the medication or anesthesia is injected directly into the spinal cord fluid, as reported by MedlinePlus. Both injections are typically made at the lower back region, and the region is normally numbed with an topical anesthesia before the injection is administered.Full Answer >
A lumbar puncture is a procedure performed on the lower back in which a needle is inserted into the spinal column in order to extract cerebrospinal fluid, explains Johns Hopkins Medicine. Medication and dyes for diagnostic imaging may be injected during spinal taps as well.Full Answer >
One basic technique for reading ultrasound entails correlating shades of black, white and gray with fluid, bone and tissue respectively. Cartilaginous material and low- or high-density organic matter will appear as gradations of these colors.Full Answer >