In healthy people, fever, emotional stress and intense exercise can temporarily increase protein levels in the urine, according to the American Association for Clinical Chemistry. Abnormal protein levels may also point to kidney damage due to diabetes and hypertension.Know More
Healthy kidneys prevent protein from appearing in the urine, according to the National Kidney Foundation. When abnormal amounts of protein show up in a urine test, a physician may check blood pressure and kidney function, if kidney disease is suspected. Patients may also be referred to a specialist.
Treatments for abnormal protein levels differ based on the underlying cause. Treatments include medications and lifestyle changes, such as weight loss and smoking cessation, according to the National Kidney Foundation.Learn More
Paraplegia causes interruption of normal nerve impulses to both the bladder, where urine is stored, and the intestines. According to the caregiver resource Sci-Info-Pages, paraplegics generally need to use either an internal or external urinary catheter for urination and maintain a bowel management program to prevent accidentally having a bowel movement at a socially unacceptable time.Full Answer >
According to WebMD, the presence of bilirubin in the urine can indicate liver damage or bile flow blockage. Urobilinogen is often found in normal urine in trace amounts, but its presence can also indicate bile flow blockage and cirrhosis of the liver or hepatitis.Full Answer >
A female pushes the catheter into the urethra until urine begins to flow, explains MedlinePlus. Drugs.com states the males should hold the penis straight from the body, and the catheter is placed into the urinary meatus and pushed into the penis until urine begins to flow.Full Answer >
Selecting the right catheter size is typically based on the quality of the patient's urine, as PatientPlus indicates that cloudier, grittier or bloodier urine requires larger catheters. As a general rule of thumb, always use the smallest catheter size that still allows for proper drainage. Gender and the age of the patient are also factors to be considered when choosing the right catheter size.Full Answer >