The first camera was invented by Alhazen in around 1000 A.D. Alhazen, who was widely known as an authority on optics during the Middle Ages, invented the pinhole camera.
Ancient Persia was predominantly an agricultural economy. As their empire expanded, the Persians increased trade networks with the people they had subjugated.
The Blackfoot people initially used dogs to pull their belongings on a sled-like device called a travois while they walked alongside. When they encountered horses in the 18th century, the dogs were quickly eclipsed by these much larger, stronger and more versatile animals.
Generally, Native American men wore breechcloths, which were a type of loincloth, and the women typically wore skirts or shirts made of buckskin. According to the American Indian Heritage Foundation, Native American tribes did not have the same style of dress. Although there were similarities in the styles of dress among the tribes, the styles were fundamentally different.
Sparta had what is known as a diarchical monarchy. The government's complete makeup consisted of dual kings; a council of about 30 gerontes or gerousia, which are rich elders; the ephors, a small council of five people and an assembly, called the Appella or Demos, of the common people who gathered once a month.
Women in ancient China lived oppressed lives, and their roles centered around caring for their husbands, cleaning, cooking and looking after their kids. The women of ancient China were expected to bear many children, and most of them felt pressure from their husbands to bear a son despite its being beyond their control.
The king's role in ancient Mesopotamia was to keep order in a world of many threats and in the context of an extremely pessimistic worldview. With constant dangers of floods and drought, kings had to protect the people in the realm, gather all the resources they could muster and honor the local gods whom the populace believed had the power to protect or destroy them.
Computer chips are written on silicon because it is inexpensive and a quality semiconductor. A good semiconductor responds to voltage to allow computers to make complex calculations. Silicon is also abundant in the natural world.
While the concept of the robot is of ancient origin, the first humanoid robot was likely built by the Muslim inventor Al-Jazari around 1200 AD. His robot was an automated serving girl that, every seven minutes, would come out of a door and serve a cup of water.
R. Tradwell invented the first coiled spring in 1763, according to Coiling Technologies, Inc. However, non-coiled springs have been in use since the days of the bow and arrow.
According to USHistory.org, electricity was not really "invented" by anyone, as it is a force of nature that has presumably been around since the beginning of the universe. The first person to publish a study of electricity and magnetism was William Gilbert in the year 1600.
The Z3, designed in Germany by Konrad Zuse and completed in 1941, is widely considered to be the first programmable computer. While later computers were significantly faster, the Z3 laid the groundwork for further development.
Fabric softeners were invented in the mid 1900s by the textile industry to reduce static and improve the comfort of clothes. Scientist Conrad J. Gaiser later invented the more convenient dryer sheet in the 1960s.
A female emperor is properly termed an empress or an empress regnant. Emperors and empresses reign over empires and are generally conceded to outrank kings. Reigning empresses rarely conquer their own territories but instead inherit from a husband or father.
Mansa Musa assumed the position of ruler of Mali during the 14th century, and later embarked on a journey to Mecca, becoming the first African ruler to do so. Mansa Musa was born in 1280 A.D., and died in 1337. His life achievements included promoting the Muslim religion, and supporting unprecedented growth of the arts and education.
Galileo is famous for many things but is probably best known for discovering Jupiter's four moons. The moons around Jupiter are called "Gallilean moons."
The medieval period encompasses the fifth to 14th or 15th centuries. Historians date this period from the collapse of the Roman Empire until the dawn of the Renaissance.
The exact number of people who died during the construction of the Great Wall of China is unknown; however, it is estimated that up to 1,000,000 people lost their lives. Over 2000 years ago, Emperor Qin commanded the original construction of the Great Wall of China.
The primary residents of European castles during the Middle Ages were the lord and lady of the realm. These might be royalty or simply the liege lords of the district where the castle was built.
Nelson Mandela (1918-2013) was a president of South Africa and a Nobel Peace Prize recipient. In South Africa, he is often called "Madiba," which was the name of the clan he was born into.
The Bay of Pigs invasion embarrassed the United States, drove a wedge between President Kennedy and his intelligence services and strengthened the relationship between the Soviet Union and Cuba. In the aftermath, the United States switched to more covert methods of trying to depose Fidel Castro, while the Soviets began sending supplies and weapons to Cuba to forestall another invasion. This ultimately led to the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962.
Generally speaking, the DARPA research project known as ARPANET has been defined as the "beginning" of the Internet, as it was the first instance of resources shared over a wide area network. It first came to life in Sept. 1969, when the IMP server at UCLA came online.
Historians study the past by gathering dates from archives, books, artifacts and documents, according to the United States Department of Labor. They use this data to analyze and develop an interpretation of history.
Sigmund Freud, the creator of psychoanalysis, was one of the first doctors to research and write about the unconscious mind and repressed memories. Freud believed that psychological problems could manifest as physical symptoms.
Royal Navy Captain James Cook died on February 14, 1779, after he was stabbed in a scuffle with Hawaiian islanders when he attempted to take the local leader hostage. His death occurred during his third exploratory voyage on the HMS Endeavour.