The most complex of Mesopotamia's institutions was probably Hammurabi's written legal code, the first in recorded history. In addition to this, several other Mesopotamian institutions, from a government bureaucracy to a system of welfare designed to alleviate famine, were important in the history of civilization.Know More
Mesopotamia was among the first places where humans gathered to live in large cities. This led to a number of new problems, such as how to provide food to everyone, how to defend against enemies, and how to determine who gives the orders. In small villages, everyone grew crops or fished, everyone fought marauders and the leader was chosen more or less democratically or by heredity. In cities, it proved more effective to have a king who ran a bureaucracy of skilled administrators. With different cultures mingling in these growing cities, cultural norms were displaced or formalized by legal codes that everyone could understand and abide by. These codes were soon written down. Legal codes led to a court system to enforce them, and to a police force to ensure the court's rulings were enforced.
The government in Mesopotamia quickly found more problems that needed redress. Flooding led to a public works program in which citizens donated work to build dikes. Soon the government officials realized that it would be more efficient to pay specialists to build these and similar structures, so instead of requiring labor, they created a system of taxation that also enriched the king, tax collectors and priests. A larger populace made an educational system necessary, and educated citizens wanted libraries. As Mesopotamian cities grew in size, a complex civilization developed around them.Learn more about Ancient Greece
The Greek key design symbolizes infinity or the eternal flow of life. It can also represent waves, the four compass points, the four seasons and snakes. The design was named "meander" after the twisting and turning of the Meander river in present-day Turkey. It was the most important symbol utilized in Ancient Greece.Full Answer >
One of the main reasons that ancient Greece fell to Macedonia during the 4th century B.C. was the superior tactical planning employed against Greece by King Philip II of Macedon. In addition to reorganizing and strengthening the Macedonian military forces, King Philip II relied upon diplomatic strategies, bribery, trickery and the information provided by his intelligence service to gain a significant advantage over the Greek city-states. Philip II was also adept at playing his enemies against each other, and the military maxim "divide and conquer" has been credited to him.Full Answer >
At its largest extent, the Byzantine Empire included North Africa, the southern Iberian Peninsula, the Italian Peninsula, the Balkan Peninsula, Anatolia, Egypt and the Levant. The Empire's center was the city of Constantinople.Full Answer >
At the ancient Olympic Games, winners received palm branches and had red ribbons tied to their heads and hands. They also received olive tree wreaths on the last day of the games.Full Answer >