The most complex of Mesopotamia's institutions was probably Hammurabi's written legal code, the first in recorded history. In addition to this, several other Mesopotamian institutions, from a government bureaucracy to a system of welfare designed to alleviate famine, were important in the history of civilization.Know More
Mesopotamia was among the first places where humans gathered to live in large cities. This led to a number of new problems, such as how to provide food to everyone, how to defend against enemies, and how to determine who gives the orders. In small villages, everyone grew crops or fished, everyone fought marauders and the leader was chosen more or less democratically or by heredity. In cities, it proved more effective to have a king who ran a bureaucracy of skilled administrators. With different cultures mingling in these growing cities, cultural norms were displaced or formalized by legal codes that everyone could understand and abide by. These codes were soon written down. Legal codes led to a court system to enforce them, and to a police force to ensure the court's rulings were enforced.
The government in Mesopotamia quickly found more problems that needed redress. Flooding led to a public works program in which citizens donated work to build dikes. Soon the government officials realized that it would be more efficient to pay specialists to build these and similar structures, so instead of requiring labor, they created a system of taxation that also enriched the king, tax collectors and priests. A larger populace made an educational system necessary, and educated citizens wanted libraries. As Mesopotamian cities grew in size, a complex civilization developed around them.Learn more about Ancient Greece
Euclid was a Greek mathematician who developed a theorem that was later named in his honor as the Euclidean Algorithm. He developed a version of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, and he showed that no finite collection of primes contains them all.Full Answer >
The Greek key has been connected to various meanings, and some claim that the key is meant to symbolize a maze or labyrinth. This interpretation is connected to a myth where Theseus fought a Minotaur in a labyrinth. There is actually a Greek bowl artifact that depicts Theseus dragging the dead Minotaur from the labyrinth, which is represented by the key frieze.Full Answer >
Since there are very few historical references to the Greek mathematician Euclid's life, the circumstances and even the exact year of his death are unknown. Most sources estimate his death to have occurred somewhere in the middle of the third century B.C.Full Answer >
The Parthenon is constructed out of a combination of limestone and marble. The foundation of the building is limestone, while the columns are made of Pentelic marble, a kind of white, fine-grained marble quarried from the Penteli region in Greece.Full Answer >