The ancients revolutionized communication with various forms of writing based on spoken language established by their prehistoric ancestors. Written communication was transmitted by a variety of media, including stone, metal, wood, wax and pottery.Know More
Stone inscriptions allowed ancient communicators to have their messages read by generations to come, which was beneficial for the development of culture. Such inscriptions were created with a hammer and chisel. One school of thought holds that the right-to-left direction of ancient Semitic languages (Hebrew and Arabic) can be attributed to the fact that the right-handed majority found it more natural to chisel that way.
Because of its cost, metal was rarely used for ancient communications. Nevertheless, inscriptions on gold and silver have been linked to royal palaces and temples, while in ancient Rome, bronze tablets were a common and more convenient alternative for storing information than stone.
Wooden tablets and boards are likely to have been widely used, although few have lasted for contemporary examination. It is known, however, that the ancient Romans re-used whitewashed wooden boards for announcements and advertising.
A more everyday medium for communication in the ancient world was beeswax contained within a wooden frame. Sometimes these would be bound together to form a codex and used for contracts, records or notes.
Pottery shards, particularly in Egypt, were another everyday medium for communication. People would inscribe tax receipts and other temporary information onto them.Learn more about Ancient History
The civilizations of the Mesopotamian area, which include the Sumerians, Babylonians, Assyrians and Akkadians, had numerous achievements, such as a form of written communication with pictures, mathematics, trade and astronomy. The Assyrians can claim credit for the first zoo thanks to the rule of King Ashurnasirbal II, along with the first library thanks to a later king named Ashurbanipal. This library is where the Epic of Gilgamesh was stored along with much of the ancient writing of the area.Full Answer >
The earliest forms of education emerged in the cultures of the Middle East, including Egypt, Mesopotamia and Babylonia. Although it's impossible to designate a specific individual or even culture as the creator of school, the concept of education developed along with the concept of writing, which had emerged by 3100 B.C. or earlier.Full Answer >
In ancient China, coins were the main forms of currency from the last phase of the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC) onward. Coins were made of copper, iron, lead, gold and silver in different shapes, weight and marks. Before that, early Chinese used shells as a medium of exchange in commerce.Full Answer >
The eight basic features of a civilization are large population centers, a central administrative body, complex religion, job specialization, social class structures, forms of art and architecture, organized public works, and a system of writing. All of these features are made possible by efficient agricultural systems that allow a group of people within the fledgling civilization to begin specializing their skills toward one of the basic features of a civilization.Full Answer >