As a result of the Crusades, Europe saw tremendous intellectual growth, a strengthening of the merchant class through expansion in trade and the rise of new banking institutions. Unfortunately, all of these benefits came at the tremendous cost of lost lives and fortunes.Know More
The flow of traffic from Europe to the Holy Land opened the doors to expansion in the trade of goods and ideas. While Europe was just emerging from the Dark Ages, the East was experiencing an intellectual Golden Age. Europeans were exposed to new concepts in mathematics, engineering and warfare, and they brought these ideas home when they returned. Because the Crusades went on for over two centuries, there was a need for goods and supplies. Merchants returning from the East brought spices, fruit and other commodities, while raw materials were sent back to the Holy Land to aid the Crusaders who remained. The merchant class increased in strength, and there were new banking institutions established to help move vast quantities of money safely.
The Crusades provoked the weakening of the feudal system as many of the hereditary lords died with their sons during the campaigns. With no one left to inherit, the lands were returned to the Crown. The Crusades saw massive casualties on both sides. Millions perished through the endless wars and pillaging, and many more were taken into slavery, including thousands of children.Learn more about Middle Ages
Numerous social, religious and economic factors contributed to the launch of the Crusades, but primary among these was Europe's growing capacity for conquest. Having recently recovered from the Dark Ages, the nations of Europe were able to launch large-scale military action for the first time in centuries.Full Answer >
The Crusades were a series of holy wars fueled by two major causes: the Pope's desire to expand the Holy Roman Empire and the reclamation of the Holy Land. In the 11th century, Christians and Muslims were at odds over the ownership of Jerusalem, a holy site for both Christianity and Islam.Full Answer >
In the Crusades, Richard the Lionheart was important because he helped the crusaders take possession of Joppa due to his victory at Arsuf and came close to taking possession of Jerusalem. He was determined to fight in the Third Crusade and financed his fight by selling offices and sheriffdoms before he left for the Holy Land in 1190.Full Answer >
Negative effects of the Crusades included the repeated defeats of the Christian armies, the slaughter of innocents and the looting of Constantinople. The destruction of Constantinople severed any hope of mending the East-West schism in Christianity, and this event left the Byzantine Empire vulnerable to the Ottoman Empire.Full Answer >