The Industrial Revolution made machine-based manufacturing more common, and increased the population and average income. Instead of farming, people came to cities to work. Women and children worked in factories as well.
Factories were not regulated by the government, so they could treat their workers however they wanted. Workers demanded better conditions, and eventually governments passed laws to regulate companies. This started in England with the Health and Morals of Apprentices Act of 1802. It limited work to 12 hours per day and required employers to provide education, clothing and a place to live. Today, many countries ban child labor and require companies to pay a minimum wage. Companies must also keep conditions safe for workers.