Lenin promised "peace, land and bread" to gain popular support during the struggle for political power in Russia after the czar abdicated, according to the History Channel website. In October 1917, the Bolsheviks used such promises to successfully overthrow the provisional government and gain control.Know More
The phrase appealed to the basic needs of the Russian people. World War I was disastrous for Russia. By the end of 1916, around 5 million Russian troops were dead, prisoners of war or missing. The army was poorly commanded and poorly supplied, and morale was low. At home, men, horses and material were requisitioned for the war, and hunger became rampant. Due to shortages caused by the war, protests and food riots broke out in Petrograd, the capital, and in other cities. In addition, the Russian peasant population, who lived and toiled on minuscule amounts of land, saw that rich landowners with large estates continued to thrive at the expense of the poor.
Lenin addressed these concerns in his proclamation. Peace would mean an end to the war with its terrible casualties. Bread would mean relief from the ubiquitous hunger. Land would mean the prospect of self-sufficiency for the peasant population. In the end, none of these promises were kept, although Russia did withdraw from World War I through the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918, about the same time it erupted into a bloody civil war. Food continued to be scarce, and the Bolsheviks eventually confiscated all land and moved peasants onto collective farms.Learn more about Modern Europe
According to the History Channel, the Russian revolutions of 1917 led to the withdrawal of Russia from the first World War, a civil war between factions inside Russia, the rise of Vladimir Lenin and the Bolsheviks and the birth of the USSR. It also triggered Marxist revolutions in countries around the world although none were ultimately as successful or long lasting as the Russian revolution.Full Answer >
The Bolsheviks came to power in Russia through a nearly bloodless coup called the October Revolution. This coup occurred in early November 1917, eight months after the February Revolution that had deposed the Russian czar on March 15th and established a republic. Though the Bolsheviks were not the sole party participating in the October Revolution, they led the way and controlled most of the organs of power.Full Answer >
Napoleon's empire collapsed because of the Continental System, the Peninsular War, and the invasion of Russia. These events are widely viewed as three major mistakes that led to the weakening of his rule in Europe.Full Answer >
While Napoleon Bonaparte's rule brought about positive change for the French people in the form of new technologies and improved economic conditions for the peasantry and middle class, his disastrous campaign against Russia cost the lives of about 500,000 men and forced him to raise taxes while France was also caught up in an industrial and agricultural crisis. The institution of the Napoleonic Code in France and in the conquered territories helped to eventually bring about the growth of a strong bourgeois society in Europe and ended preexisting feudal systems, but growing and debilitating unemployment caused Napoleon to also lose the support of the French people.Full Answer >