Traditionally, North American Indian peace pipes contained a mixture of tobacco and various wild herbs, such as willow bark, sumac and white sage. A variety of tobacco species and types of herbs were used in peace pipes based on regional differences.Know More
In Native American ceremonies, tobacco was commonly offered to spirits. Many Native American tribes used a ceremonial pipe in rituals they considered to be sacred. A peace pipe is also known as a calumet. Besides its use during treaty negotiations, a calumet was used during council meetings, sweat lodge ceremonies and friendship greetings. It was commonly used in meeting opening rituals. At the beginning of a meeting, the pipe was lit, and smoke was blown towards the east, south, west and north before offering smoke to Father Sky and Mother Earth. After the invocations, the pipe was passed around among attendees. Contrary to popular belief, the smoke from a peace pipe is not inhaled.
Certain Native American tribes perform what is known as the Calumet Dance, an elaborate dance offering smoke to the Great Spirit. Alternatively, some tribes call it the Medicine Pipe Dance. During the dance, pipes are used to represent male and female principles. In this instance, the long-stemmed pipes are used as a wand.Learn more in US History
The Fourteen Points stated by Woodrow Wilson were important for peace and ethics, and used mainly to motivate the Allied forces. The points were highlighted in a speech Woodrow gave to the United States Congress in 1918.Full Answer >
President Wilson's plan for peace after WWI was outlined in the Fourteen Points. According to the United States Department of State, the Fourteen Points were improved by later decrees.Full Answer >
The Compromise of 1850 included many provisions that were not found in the original 1820 Missouri Compromise, which was the original attempt at keeping sectional balance and maintaining peace and union. The original proposal was presented by Kentucky Senator Henry Clay. The purpose of the Compromise of 1850 was to avoid disunion and war by achieving political balance between the north and south and abolitionists and supporters of slavery.Full Answer >
Americans moved to the West in the 1800s because people wanted to get a fresh start and wanted to be able to buy their own land, as well as to try new economic possibilities, such as farming and gold mining. It all began when President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 from the French government.Full Answer >