Neanderthals lived from about 200,000 years ago until 28,000 years ago. They lived in Europe, as well as southwestern and central Asia, and are the closest extinct relative to modern humans.
The environment Neanderthals lived in was cold and dry, and they evolved physical characteristics to better thrive in those conditions. They had large noses, which helped warm and humidify the air, and had shorter, stockier bodies than modern humans. Neanderthals also had brains that were as large as or larger than those of modern humans. There is evidence that Neanderthals used tools, controlled fire, wore clothing, lived in shelters and buried their dead.