The Pentagon Papers revealed that at least three sitting Presidents and their administrations purposefully deceived the people of the United States by escalating the Vietnam War while stating the opposite. The Presidents included in the report that became known as the Pentagon Papers include Harry S. Truman, Lyndon Johnson and John F. Kennedy, according to NBC News and the University of Virginia.
In 1967, Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara decided that a comprehensive analysis of the United States' involvement in Vietnam after 1945 was needed to help relieve his frustration over the war, according to the University of Virginia. The resulting document was approximately 7,000 pages long and chronicled the involvement of the United States in Vietnam from the end of World War II until the end of the 1968 Tet Offensive, according to the University of Virginia. Parts of the Pentagon Papers were leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg, one of the analyst who had helped create the report. According to NBC, the Nixon administration retaliated by attempting to suppress publication of the papers. The Supreme Court ruled that the printing of the papers was covered under the First Amendment and was legal, according to NBC. NBC also notes that in 2011, the National Archives declassified the Pentagon Papers, making the entire document available to the public.Learn More
"Tommies" refers to "Tommy Atkins," a generic representative name used for British soldiers to indicate where they should sign on their paperwork. However, "Tommy Atkins'" exact origins are murky, dating back to 1743 in a letter that referred to the conduct of the original "Tommy Atkins."Full Answer >
In the late 1880's, three popular forms of entertainment were vaudeville variety shows, the circus and baseball. The 1880's saw vaudeville bring together diverse theatrical acts, the circus expand under the big top to three rings, and the merger of professional baseball leagues.Full Answer >
The United States obtained full control of the Panama Canal in 1903 through the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama after sending warships to help Panama gain independence from Columbia. The treaty stipulated that, for a one-time payment of $10 million, a yearly rental fee of $250,000 and the promise of U.S. protection, Panama granted the United States perpetual control of the canal itself and five miles of land on either side.Full Answer >
According to Heritage History, Napoleon attacked Portugal due to the country's refusal to join his Continental System. In 1806, he attempted to wage economic war by forcing France, its captured territories and the country's allies to refuse to do business with England in an attempt to weaken the island nation. Portugal refused to play along and signed a treaty with England, and in response, Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807.Full Answer >