Raphael contributed to the Renaissance through the paintings, frescoes and architecture he created and designed throughout his career. He is considered one of the greatest artists of the period, along with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci.Know More
Raphael was born in 1483 and studied under the painter Perugino in Umbria, Italy. One of Raphael's earliest paintings, the Marriage of the Virgin, is an homage to Perugino's painting, which covers the same subject. Perugino's works emphasized gracefulness, light and pure colors, and Raphael learned and enhanced his techniques.
Raphael then moved to Florence, where he was influenced by the painter Masaccio. From this painter, Raphael learned how to better group his characters in a work. He also learned techniques from Michelangelo and Leonardo. While Raphael was in Florence, he painted The Entombment, The Madonna of the Meadow and other works.
Art historians consider Raphael's greatest works to have come late in his brief life. He painted frescoes in the Vatican for Pope Julius II. Among them are The School of Athens and Parnassus. In 1514, Pope Leo X named him the chief architect of St. Peter's Church in Rome.
Among Raphael's great works are his Alba Madonna, Galatea and Portrait of Castiglione. Raphael died in 1520.Learn more about Renaissance & Reformation
One of the conditions that helped usher in the Renaissance was the availability of previously inaccessible philosophical texts from the time of the ancient Romans and Greeks. These works were viewed as a moralistic foundation that could rescue society from the decadence brought on by the Roman Empire and the "dark ages" that followed its demise. The economic and political rise of the Italian city-states was another condition that helped move Italy away from the feudal system of the Middle Ages and towards a new form of society based on merchants, commerce and reawakened notions of liberty and artistic freedom.Full Answer >
The historical and cultural period that follows the Renaissance is known as the Enlightenment. This period lasts from the middle decades of the 17th century through the 18th century.Full Answer >
Although historians disagree about the precise beginnings of the Renaissance, most trace its origins to the competition between artists and great thinkers in north-central Italy, particularly around the city of Florence. From there, the intellectual and artistic movement spread throughout the country and later throughout Europe.Full Answer >
An indulgence during the Renaissance was the forgiveness of sin in exchange for penance. In most cases, penance took the form of a cash donation to the Catholic Church, and the person making the donation was given a piece of paper that stated his soul was ready to be admitted to heaven.Full Answer >