The kings of ancient Ghana amassed wealth through the gold and salt trade, aided by the development of ironworking. The kings collected taxes on trade and prohibited others from owning gold nuggets, which limited the availability of gold and kept prices high.Know More
During its height, ancient Ghana was so wealthy that even pets wore ornaments made of gold, and livestock slept in luxury. Located in what is today's Mauritania, Mali and Senegal, ancient Ghana's primary natural resource was gold. At some point in its history, Ghana had expanded to include control of land between the upper Niger and Senegal Rivers, an area that is rich in gold. Ancient Ghanaians traded gold, slaves and ivory for salt from the Arabs and obtained horses, swords, cloth and books from Europe and the West. Islamic merchants traveled for over two months through the desert to reach Ghana, where they were taxed not only on what they were importing but also on what they were exporting.
The Almoravids, a Muslim group, attacked the capital city of Koumbi Saleh during the 11th century. Although Ghana repelled the invasion, 200 years later it was severely weakened by further attacks and was cut off from the international trade routes. Eventually Ghana was absorbed by the expanding Mali nation.Learn more about Modern History
Roman rulers opposed Christianity because the rulers believed that they were gods and wanted all of the people to see them as gods, which would not happen if the people believed in one god through Christianity. The lessening of the divine status of the Roman rulers would mean they would have less power in the lives of the people.Full Answer >
Sargon and Hammurabi both commanded great empires as rulers, with Hammurabi known for his expansion of his empire to cover all of southern Mesopotamia and Sargon known for creating the "first known empire," reports History.com. Not much is known about Sargon because his reign occurred between 2340 B.C. and 2305 B.C., and not many written records exist from this period.Full Answer >
In addition to being infamously honored by a negatively perceived adjective, "Machiavellian," having been named after him, Niccolo Machiavelli is known for his critique of moralistic political theory, his "guide books" regarding the maintenance of state power and his often discomforting pragmatic disregard for ethics in his written advice to the rulers of his time. Some later thinkers, such as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, believe that Machiavelli's true contribution to political and philosophical thought was to expose rather than celebrate the lack of ethics prevalent in governance. Some modern scholars point out that Machiavelli's success at writing popular and biting stage comedies is evidence of his satirical side and his political observations should also be considered in this light.Full Answer >
Monograms date as far back as Ancient Greece, where coins were monogrammed with the initials of the coins' local city and the city's rulers. During the Middle Ages, painters, craftsmen, merchants and artisans used monograms as a signature to brand their work. An article published in 1871 referred to monogramming as an epidemic.Full Answer >