The Sumerian civilization formed around 4000 B.C. and disappeared in 2000 B.C. The Sumerians settled in the fertile regions surrounding the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. They established communities in structured city-states, which featured layouts with temples to honor deities in city centers.Know More
The Sumerian society established city-states as a more formal and permanent living structure than found in earlier societies. The Sumerian civilization consisted of a diverse socioeconomic group consisting of peasants, farmers, craftsmen and priests. Religion formed a central component of Sumerian life, and Sumerians placed religious temples in every city-state center.
Sumerians originated from the Persian Gulf region and brought traditions and skills from their homeland upon settling in the Tigris and Euphrates river valleys. Sumerians specialized in trade and possibly agriculture as well. Although living in Egypt briefly, Sumerians receive credit for important contributions to the world. They developed a complex and coherent system of writing and introduced an efficient system of record keeping and maintenance, too. Sumerians developed a social and economic structure and established timekeeping methods by breaking down time into various units, such as days, hours and months. The Sumerians eventually succumbed to attacks from other civilizations, including the Semitic peoples, which led to their ultimate demise.Learn more about Mesopotamia
The main responsibilities of Sumerian kings during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization include religious rituals, domestic affairs of state, military affairs, law creation, administrative leadership and execution of justice. Mesopotamian society considered the king as the representative of the gods on Earth with a divinely granted right to rule.Full Answer >
There were four Sumerian social classes: priests, the upper class, the lower class and slaves. In some cases, it was possible to identify who belonged to which class by the way they dressed.Full Answer >
Ancient Sumerian pottery is clay crockery that was created by the inhabitants of Mesopotamia between 5000 and 2000 B.C. Among the most commonly produced products were plates, jugs and other kitchenware. The Sumerians are thought to have been the first culture to use a potter's wheel.Full Answer >
The Ancient Sumerian city-states in the Mesopotamian region of the Middle East fought with each other for control of the irrigated land needed to grow their crops. Located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, the Mesopotamian region would have remained dry and unsuited for agriculture if not for the yearly replenishment of fertile land brought about by the flooding of these two rivers. Control of the water, one of the most valuable resources in the area, determined which city-state would be able to grow enough crops to feed its inhabitants.Full Answer >