The Directory of 1795 was the chief governing body of France between 1795 and 1799. It was the entity that took over the French government in the wake of the Reign of Terror and was the final phase of the French Revolution proper. Its inherent weakness and corruption eventually led to its collapse, and to the ultimate establishment of the Consulate under Napoleon.Know More
After the Reign of Terror and the demise of the Committee of Public Safety, the French revolutionary government adopted a new constitution, France's third. As per this new constitution, the Directory was established with two houses: the Council of Ancients, made of 250 people, and a second council of 500 people. At the head of this bicameral legislature was a panel of five directors, of whom the most important historically was Paul Barras.
Because the Directory was an attempt to avoid the kind of tyrannical powers held by the Committee of Public Safety, its executive powers were necessarily weak. It also fell prey to rampant and obvious corruption. As stated in Encyclopedia Britannica, the Directory thus became a “fatal experiment,” one which demanded a more coherent and effective type of leadership for the country.
Unsurprisingly, critics of the Directory began to take action. By 1799, a small coup overthrew the Directory and established the Consulate, a body of three supposedly equal peers who would guide France with little to no assistance from the legislature. The de facto leader of the Consulate, however, was the former general Napoleon Bonaparte, who quickly consolidated power more formally for himself. In 1804 he was crowned Emperor of the French in the Cathedral of Notre Dame. The French Revolution was over, and the First Empire begun.Learn more about US History
The causes of westward expansion were the purchase of the Louisiana territory from France, the Lewis and Clark expedition, President Thomas Jefferson's vision of expanding into the available land to create an "empire of liberty" and a growing sense of American "manifest destiny." The effects included controversies over the slavery issue, which led to the Civil War, the persecution and extermination of Native Americans and the war with Mexico.Full Answer >
New England opposed the War of 1812 primarily as a reaction against the embargo and similar trade restrictions with England and France that Thomas Jefferson and his successor, James Madison, imposed upon American shipping. Because the economy of New England was so heavily dependent upon trade by sea, the measure impoverished the New England states, leading them to rebel against the federal government almost to the point of secession.Full Answer >
Acadians settled in Louisiana after being persecuted and forced to leave their homes during the French and Indian War between England and France. While some of the Acadians went back to France, many traveled south to then Spanish-controlled Louisiana.Full Answer >
The Treaty of Paris ended the French and Indian War that took place between Great Britain and France. It also culminated in Great Britain gaining control over the colonies in North America.Full Answer >