In ancient China, coins were the main forms of currency from the last phase of the Spring and Autumn Period (770 BC - 476 BC) onward. Coins were made of copper, iron, lead, gold and silver in different shapes, weight and marks. Before that, early Chinese used shells as a medium of exchange in commerce.
Due to their pleasing appearance and being easy to carry and count, shells were the first kind of primitive money circulated at the end of the Neolithic Age. The unit of shell money is "peng" (?, meaning "friend") which originally referred to two clusters of ten shells. Due to the lack of shells in Northeast China at the end of the Shang Dynasty (1675 BC–1029 BC), "shell" money began to be made of pottery, stone, bone, jade, copper and gold. The spread of "shell" money made of copper marks the beginning of the use of metal coins in China. The Warring States Period (475 BC to 221 BC) saw a rise in "huan cash" (??, a kind of ancient copper coin with ring shape). By the end of the Qin Dynasty (221 BC–206 BC), copper coins called "ban liang qian" (? ??) were the mainstream form of currency.Learn More
During his reign, Emperor Asoka of Maurya accomplished moral reform due to his conversion to Buddhism. Emperor Asoka's program of moral reform manifested itself in three ways during his reign: instilling Buddhist practices and policies on the people, instituting the Law of Piety and following the practice of vegetarianism within the royal court.Full Answer >
Some of the major accomplishments of the Incas included their inventions, such as the flute, drum and Inca calendar. Culturally, Incas were also adept in creating pottery and cloth, and politically they are known for integrating imperial policies with ethnic diversity, which was way ahead of its time.Full Answer >
Great Britain won the Opium War against China. Their victory created foreign spheres of influence in China, allowed Great Britain to take possession of Hong Kong, opened China to European influence and created a drug epidemic in southeastern Asia.Full Answer >
The very oldest farming tools in China were made of stone or animal bones shaped into spades. From 770 to 476 B.C., a time period known as the Spring and Autumn Period, iron tools replaced conventional wooden or stone tools. Iron plows pulled by cattle plowed more deeply and efficiently, while advancements in water conservation allowed the Chinese to divert floods and irrigate farmland.Full Answer >