Examples of colonialism include the ancient Greek colonization of Sicily, the Spanish colonization of South America, the Viking colonization of Normandy and the British colonization of Australia. Colonialism involves a powerful nation sending settlers to permanently live in another land under the originating nation's control.
Though there is some overlap, colonialism is distinct from imperialism in that colonies were places controlled by permanent settlers from the ruling nation, whereas empires involved control of distant lands by ruling nations but not necessarily a permanent settlement. For example, U.S. citizens colonized the North American West, but the United States exerted imperial control over the Philippines, where Americans sent to administer the small nation had no expectation of settling there permanently. Both imperialism and colonialism have shaped civilizations for most of recorded history. In both cases, high mobility by the dominant nation, usually secondary to trade growth as well as high prosperity leading to an increase in population, end with the colonization and/or imperial control of other regions.
In modern times, the term imperialism has been used to describe indirect control of other nations, such as the financial dominance of Western nations over much of the world. According to some scholars, including Edward Said, this modern indirect imperialism is largely due to postcolonialism, in which a previously colonial power continues to control its former colonies.Learn More
The term peninsular was used to describe someone who was born on the Iberian Peninsula and lived in New Spain. In the Spanish caste system, peninsulares were favored over Spaniards born in America. These people were called criollos.Full Answer >
Charles Darwin was the scientist and naturalist who wrote "The Origin of Species." This book detailed his theory of evolution and laid out that most creatures on the planet Earth came from other earlier versions of those species.Full Answer >
Spanish explorer Vasco Nunez de Balboa set sail for South America on a trans-oceanic voyage, establishing the first settlement in modern-day Panama and claiming the western coast of South America for Spain before meeting his death, via execution, in 1519. Balboa was born in 1475 to humble beginnings. He came from the city of Jerez de los Caballeros, born to a father with noble blood but far less affluent than his noble peers.Full Answer >
Ferdinand Magellan was a Portuguese explorer famous for being the first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. His expedition also helped prove that the globe could be circumnavigated by ship.Full Answer >