The primary reasons for the decline of the English gentry were taxation, reformed voting laws, the industrial revolution and war, according to About.com. To a lesser degree, women's suffrage and the rise of divorce were also contributors.Know More
For centuries, only the land-owning gentry could vote in England, which meant they could control the laws regarding land ownership. Naturally, these favored the wealthy. In the early part of the 19th century, however, voting law was reformed, expanding the voting population in England. This initiated the decline of the English gentry. The voting issue for the gentry was compounded by the industrial revolution, which saw the establishment of factories in urban areas and the migration of workers from the country into the city. The establishment of the railroad made the transportation of goods and people much faster, and farming declined.
By the early 20th century, land taxes were significantly higher than they had been in the past. Tenants who had migrated to the cities for factory jobs that paid better than farming were no longer available to pay rent, so many land owners could no longer afford to maintain their estates. As a result, they began selling off all or part of them. Additionally, World Wars I and II dealt significant blows to the British economy at large. Women also had the right to vote and own land. Since there were no laws restricting inheritance to sons, fortunes were more widely disbursed and divorce became more common.Learn more about Modern Europe
The Parliamentarians won the English Civil War in 1651, leading to the Protectorate led by Oliver Cromwell and the execution of King Charles I. Though the monarchy was restored in 1659 with Charles II's crowning, the rebellion established that the king could not rule without Parliament's support.Full Answer >
"Degenerated disc" is a term used to describe the natural deterioration of the discs in the spine due to the aging process, according to WebMD. The term "degenerative disc disease" is also used interchangeably to describe the same condition.Full Answer >
The War of the Spanish Succession, waged between 1701 and 1714, was fought over whether the French Prince Philip of Anjou would be allowed to take the Spanish throne. Because this would join Spain and France, the powerful Austrian Empire claimed the Spanish throne for Archduke Charles of Austria.Full Answer >
The document signed by King Charles I of England in 1628 was the Petition of Right. This bill outlined several rights for England and Wales' citizens, including only taxing citizens when an act of parliament had been passed. The king saw this bill as a challenge to his royal authority, and it acted as the basis for establishing a constitutional monarchy.Full Answer >