One of the most notable international events of 1883 was the eruption of Krakatoa in Java from August 26th to 28th that killed over 40,000 people and affected weather worldwide. Wikipedia notes that other important events from 1883 include the opening of the Brooklyn Bridge in New York City, the first journey of the Orient Express from Paris to Istanbul and the codification of the five standard continental time zones.
According to Wikipedia, in publishing, 1883 saw the founding of Life magazine and the Ladies' Home Journal, and the publication of "The Adventures of Pinocchio" and Robert Louis Stevenson novel "Treasure Island." In science, the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota was founded, the Hong Kong Observatory was formed, the first central European electricity power station was up in Milan, Italy and the Bombay Natural History Society was founded. Deadly incidents include the SS Daphne disaster in Glasgow, the Victoria Hall disaster and the deaths of over 2,000 from the volcano Epomeo in Italy.
According to Biography.com, notable people born in 1883 include the architect Walter Gropius, columnist Elsa Maxwell, dictator Benito Mussolini, designer Coco Chanel, educator Charlotte Hawkins Brown and economist John Maynard Keynes. History Orb lists notable deaths in 1883. They include the deaths of philosopher Karl Marx, scholar Abdelkader El Djezairi, abolitionist Sojourner Truth and Hawaiian-princess Keelikolani.