Charlemagne achieved fame for consolidating the Frankish kingdom and then conquering Saxony in a bloody series of 18 battles, but after his death, his Holy Roman Empire passed to his son Louis the Pious. After Louis' passing, the empire split among Louis' three sons Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothair, which was the beginning of the growth of smaller nations in medieval Europe.Know More
After defeating the Saxons, Charlemagne forced conversion to Catholicism on those whom he had conquered, killing the ones who would not comply. After consolidating his power by taking the crown of the Holy Roman Empire on Christmas morning in 800, he established a new monetary standard, making the liver (pound) worth 20 sous (the shilling later) and 240 deniers (which would become the penny). He split the empire into 350 counties, each with its own court, and he established the "Envoys of the Lord" to ensure loyalty throughout his lands.
The reign of Charlemagne is considered the Carolingian Renaissance because art, literature, scholarship and architecture began to flourish for the first time in centuries. Scholars copied and saved many of the classic works from Latin. While the size of the empire would shrink, the notion of strong centralized institutions within Europe would never fade again as it had after the fall of the Western Roman Empire.Learn More
The Children's Crusade is supposed to have involved between 15,000 and 30,000 French children, who attempted to reach the Christian Holy Land by foot and boat in an effort to reclaim Jerusalem for their faith. Historical evidence for the Crusade is dubious at best, and it is unclear whether it ever really happened.Full Answer >
The most significant event of 1215 was the signing of the Magna Carta at Runnymeade. This act limited the powers of the king and placed him within the limitations of the law.Full Answer >
The Ridda Wars of 632 through 633 A.D. were a series of campaigns during which the first elected Islamic Caliph, Abu Bakr, defeated rebellious Arab tribes just after Mohammed's death. "Ridda" translates roughly to "apostasy."Full Answer >
The faith of Islam spread very swiftly after the death of the Prophet Mohammad in 632 A.D., largely due to three factors. These were, in no certain order, the ease of conversion, the political consolidation of the Islamic state and the remarkable military effectiveness of Islamic armies.Full Answer >