The Indian National Congress, or INC, was formed in 1885 to create an outlet for Indians to voice their concerns and express their views. The forerunner of the INC was the Indian Association, which was created in 1876 and the first Indian political organization of its kind. Both organizations were formed as a result of the growing tide of political awareness taking place in British-ruled India.Know More
In its beginnings, the Indian National Congress was made up largely of moderate voices with a limited degree of influence from British governance. The INC, however, became increasingly radicalized in the face of the British government's growing opposition to the organization's aims. The INC eventually grew into the dominant force in the independence movement and became its umbrella organization.
The Indian National Congress was founded by members of the Theosophical Society, both Indian and British, with much of the initiative for its formation credited to Scotsman, A.O. Hume, a British civil servant who had worked as a doctor and an intelligence officer in India. Rising to the position of Director-General of Agriculture by 1870, Hume's reformist policies and his championing of the plight of India's rural poor were considered controversial by his superiors.
The Indian National Congress was split into two factions by 1907: the Garam dal, comprised of extremists, and the Naram dal, which was made up of moderates. Owing to the influence of Bal Gangadhar Tilak of the Garam dal, the INC brought millions of people together to oppose British rule.Learn more about Modern Asia
José Rizal became a national hero for his part in the Filipino nationalist movement. Rizal wrote about the discrimination that was occurring in the Philippines under Spanish occupation and called for significant reform. He is applauded as one of the first individuals to work for independence in the Philippines.Full Answer >
Known for non-violent civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi was the preeminent political and spiritual leader of India during the nation's struggle for independence from Great Britain. Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1922 after organizing farmers, urban laborers and peasants in protests against discrimination and excessive land taxes. His continuing efforts toward achieving independence ultimately led to England transferring power to a partitioned India in 1947.Full Answer >
While Jose Rizal is considered a national hero by many for his pivotal role in the Philippine Revolution against the Spaniards, there is no official national hero of the Philippines. In 1898, December 30 was declared a national day of mourning for the death of Rizal and others during the revolution.Full Answer >
When a volcano surfaces just above sea level, erosion from waves can create a plateau called a guyot, that eventually sinks below sea level. Guyots sinks as a result of both erosion and the tectonic plates that the ocean floor rests on slowly moving apart.Full Answer >