The items or tools used to mummify people in Ancient Egypt were hooks, linens, salt, resin and a coffin. Mummification was a long process reserved only for those in the upper level of society.Know More
Preparing the Body
Before the mummification process could begin, the body had to be fully prepared. The brain was pulled out of the head using a hook, and then the internal organs were cut out of the rest of the body. Organs such as the lungs, liver, stomach and intestines were dried and placed in jars to be buried with the body. If the heart was removed, it was returned to the body, so it could travel with the spirit to the next world. The inside of the body was cleansed with wine and spices, covered with salt and resin and left for 40 days.
Stuffing the Body
After 40 days, the skin was leather-like. The body was stuffed with linen or sand to give it a human shape, and it sat for an additional 30 days.
Wrapping the Body
After a total of 70 days, the body was wrapped with linen bandages, starting with the fingers and toes. Sometimes gold and jewels were wrapped with the body so the person could take it to the afterlife. Once this process was complete, the body was placed in a coffin for burial.
Pharaohs were placed in elaborate tombs, along with many of their possessions and even some of their slaves.Learn more about Ancient Egypt
Ancient Egypt had an agricultural economy, and while there is little evidence to suggest that the state told the farmers what to grow, there were quality inspections and taxes were collected. Initially, the ancient Egyptians did not have a coinage system, which meant they relied on trading sacks of corn and grain for goods.Full Answer >
The civil servants of ancient Egypt were called scribes, or sekhau. Scribes had many roles, including tax collection, conducting the census and overseeing the harvest and distribution of the food supply.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptians lived throughout the Nile River valley and delta, shielded on all sides by deserts, seas, mountains and rapids. To the east, a small desert separates the river valley from the Red Sea, while the Sahara Desert lies to the west, stretching almost all the way across the continent. To the north, the Mediterranean Sea separated the Egyptians from European people, while mountains and rushing rapids protected the south.Full Answer >
The cataracts of Egypt are areas of a river, specifically the Nile, characterized by extreme shallowness and other obstacles that made them difficult to navigate for ancient Egyptians. Many smaller cataracts come and go with the flow of the river.Full Answer >