Narmer was the 32nd-century B.C. founder of Pharaonic Egypt and celebrated throughout the region's ancient period for uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. As the king of Upper Egypt, Narmer led a campaign sometime around 3200 B.C. to conquer the northern kingdom of Lower Egypt, though this date is uncertain.Know More
The unified kingdom founded by Narmer, whom Herodotus called Menes in his history of Egypt, was celebrated as a symbol of royal authority and favorably referenced by pharaohs of all 30 subsequent dynasties. His name appears on artifacts that were placed in the Step Pyramid of Zoser, and numerous pottery sherds that refer to him have been found as far north as Canaan. Throughout Egyptian history, Narmer has been revered as a figure of mythical power, and his name was frequently invoked to lend legitimacy to Egyptian rulers as late as the Ptolemaic period.
Despite this reverence, not much is known about the life of Narmer, or whether he really was the same pharaoh as Herodotus' Menes. His immediate predecessor in Upper Egypt is thought to have been either Ka or Scorpion II, and his wife, Neithhotep, may have been from either Upper or Lower Egypt. In art, Narmer is often depicted dominating captives after a successful battle.Learn more about Ancient Egypt
The Ancient Egyptians used a few types of coffins, including the cartonnage mummy case, anthropoid coffin and sarcophagus derived from the Greek words "sarx" and "phagien" for "flesh-eating." Body parts were placed inside canopic jars.Full Answer >
In ancient Egypt, pharaohs typically ate loaves of bread, fruits, vegetables, beef, figs and fine wine. They dined with their wives and children. Guests joined the pharaohs during dinner parties that involved dining and dancing.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptian farmers wore loin cloths made of linen, crafted from softened and beaten flax fibers that were spun into thread. Sandals were only worn for special occasions or when feet needed protection. The poor used papyrus or palm fronds to make sandals, while the rich wore sandals of leather.Full Answer >
The highest of all ancient Egyptian nobility, the pharaoh, was seen as the go-between for the gods and the world of humanity, and pharaohs thus had a matching extravagance in their lifestyles that far exceeded the royalty of most other kingdoms that have come into existence since. Lower nobility was known for lavish practices, such as burying their pets in luxurious graves, and similar practices allegorical to modern culture.Full Answer >