Narmer was the 32nd-century B.C. founder of Pharaonic Egypt and celebrated throughout the region's ancient period for uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. As the king of Upper Egypt, Narmer led a campaign sometime around 3200 B.C. to conquer the northern kingdom of Lower Egypt, though this date is uncertain.Know More
The unified kingdom founded by Narmer, whom Herodotus called Menes in his history of Egypt, was celebrated as a symbol of royal authority and favorably referenced by pharaohs of all 30 subsequent dynasties. His name appears on artifacts that were placed in the Step Pyramid of Zoser, and numerous pottery sherds that refer to him have been found as far north as Canaan. Throughout Egyptian history, Narmer has been revered as a figure of mythical power, and his name was frequently invoked to lend legitimacy to Egyptian rulers as late as the Ptolemaic period.
Despite this reverence, not much is known about the life of Narmer, or whether he really was the same pharaoh as Herodotus' Menes. His immediate predecessor in Upper Egypt is thought to have been either Ka or Scorpion II, and his wife, Neithhotep, may have been from either Upper or Lower Egypt. In art, Narmer is often depicted dominating captives after a successful battle.Learn more about Ancient Egypt
Most times, ancient Egyptian pharaohs wore fine linen aprons or kilts, known as a shendyt. To display their power, prestige and association with the gods, pharaohs wore different clothes than the nobles and common people. First found in the 4th Dynasty, these kilts were covered with fine accordion pleating and wrapped counter-clockwise around the king's body. On their feet, pharaohs wore elaborate sandals made of feathers.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptian soldiers ate fruit, vegetables, meat and cakes sweetened with honey. They also ate staple foods, such as bread, beans, onions, fish and garlic. Meals were often served with wine and beer. Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, geese and other fowl were commonly raised for meat and dairy.Full Answer >
Some of the ancient Egyptian artisans included sculptors, painters, weavers, metalworkers, jewelers, scribes, carpenters, stone workers and potters. These craftsmen were skilled and played an important role in the ancient community.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptian farmers wore loin cloths made of linen, crafted from softened and beaten flax fibers that were spun into thread. Sandals were only worn for special occasions or when feet needed protection. The poor used papyrus or palm fronds to make sandals, while the rich wore sandals of leather.Full Answer >