Narmer was the 32nd-century B.C. founder of Pharaonic Egypt and celebrated throughout the region's ancient period for uniting Upper and Lower Egypt. As the king of Upper Egypt, Narmer led a campaign sometime around 3200 B.C. to conquer the northern kingdom of Lower Egypt, though this date is uncertain.Know More
The unified kingdom founded by Narmer, whom Herodotus called Menes in his history of Egypt, was celebrated as a symbol of royal authority and favorably referenced by pharaohs of all 30 subsequent dynasties. His name appears on artifacts that were placed in the Step Pyramid of Zoser, and numerous pottery sherds that refer to him have been found as far north as Canaan. Throughout Egyptian history, Narmer has been revered as a figure of mythical power, and his name was frequently invoked to lend legitimacy to Egyptian rulers as late as the Ptolemaic period.
Despite this reverence, not much is known about the life of Narmer, or whether he really was the same pharaoh as Herodotus' Menes. His immediate predecessor in Upper Egypt is thought to have been either Ka or Scorpion II, and his wife, Neithhotep, may have been from either Upper or Lower Egypt. In art, Narmer is often depicted dominating captives after a successful battle.Learn more about Ancient Egypt
Some ancient Egyptian farming tools were winnowing fans, hoes, rakes, shaduf and flint-bladed sickles, as well as plows pulled by hand or oxen. These farming tools were made from wood, stone and some copper. As of 2014, many ancient Egyptian farming tools are on display at the British Museum.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptian priests wore simple clothes of linen, with white papyrus shoes. Other materials, such as wool, were prohibited. Some sects, such as mortuary priests, were permitted to wear other items.Full Answer >
Ancient Egyptian soldiers ate fruit, vegetables, meat and cakes sweetened with honey. They also ate staple foods, such as bread, beans, onions, fish and garlic. Meals were often served with wine and beer. Cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, geese and other fowl were commonly raised for meat and dairy.Full Answer >
Although soldiers at the beginning of Egypt's New Kingdom period wore no armor, they began to wear bronze or leather helmets and armor after they defeated Hyksos. Around the same time, they went from using primitive weapons to more effective weapons like spears, swords and daggers.Full Answer >