The Treaty of Versailles created several new countries in Europe, most of them built around distinct ethnic identities such as Austria. Other new countries, such as Czechoslovakia, were carved from older empires and populated by two or more major ethnic groups.
Before World War I, Eastern Europe was dominated by the Austro-Hungarian, Russian and Ottoman Empires. With the treaties of Brest-Litovsk and Versailles, these lands were carved into the Baltic states of Finland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. Russian and German territory was sacrificed to create Poland, and the medieval realms of the Sudentenland, Bohemia, Moravia and Ruthenia were united under a republican government in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Hungary and what would become Yugoslavia, which had enjoyed a measure of autonomy under Austrian rule, gained full independence under the treaties of St. Germain-en-Lay and Trianon. On the border between Yugoslavia, Austria and Italy, the city of Trieste became a self-governing entity.
Beyond Europe, many colonial empires gained territory from the dismantled German Empire. Some of these lost territories, such as Syria, were placed under the authority of the League of Nations and eventually won independence. Other colonies, such as Germany's African possessions, formed the nucleus of the future independent nations of Namibia, Tanzania, Uganda and Rwanda.Learn More
Countries that remained neutral in WWI included Denmark, Holland, Sweden and Spain. Other countries that did not take part in WWI were Argentina, Chile, Afghanistan and Persia.Full Answer >
Six new countries that formed as a direct result of WWI were Poland, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Estonia. The countries were formed after the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the House of Habsburg and the German empire.Full Answer >
The trigger for World War I was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Hungary by the anarchist Serbian Gavrilo Princip in Austria. However, the true cause of the war was a combination of romantic nationalism and a network of alliances that, while designed to balance European power, made war both inevitable and devastating in size.Full Answer >
World War I ended on June 28, 1919, with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. The four primary empires that collapsed as a result of WWI were the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, Russian and German empires. The end of WWI witnessed 13 million lives lost and unprecedented damage.Full Answer >