The Espionage and Sedition Acts made it illegal to speak out against about the government during America's involvement in World War I. While these acts applied to all Americans, it took a heavy toll on both immigrants and newspapers. This legislature effectively negated freedom of speech that related to American war efforts.
The Espionage Act took effect on June 15, 1917. It prevented individuals from voicing or publishing opinions that had the potential to interfere with America's ability to defeat their enemies. For the most part, the public was not upset by the Espionage Act. In fact, no one was officially convicted under the Espionage Act. The Sedition Act, put into effect on May 16, 1918, amended the Espionage Act in a way that caused public outrage. The Sedition Act stated that the government had the ability to punish people for voicing their opinions about the war, supporting the enemy cause, displaying a German flag and obstructing the sale of war bonds.
The Sedition Act put several publications out of business. Newspapers were forbidden from printing anything that criticized American involvement in the war. Unlike the Espionage Act, the Sedition Act resulted in about 1,000 convictions, and many of these convictions were immigrants. The Supreme Court upheld the Espionage and Sedition Acts, claiming that speaking against the government in such a way would provide a "clear and present" danger to the nation. The Sedition Act was repealed in 1921.Learn More
The purpose of the Warsaw Pact was to provide a counterbalance to NATO and increase the international negotiating power of the Soviet Union. The proximate cause of the Warsaw Pact was the May 9, 1955 decision of the governments of the United States and Western Europe to include West Germany in NATO. The Warsaw Pact lasted from May 14, 1955 to July 1, 1991.Full Answer >
The purpose of the Kellogg-Briand Pact was to basically outlaw war. The pact was signed, in August of 1928, by France, Germany and the United States. The pact is named after its two authors, Frank B. Kellogg and Aristide Briand.Full Answer >
The purpose of the Pan African Movement was to establish independence among African Nations and promote unity among all black people in the world. The Pan African Movement began in the 19th century but was strengthened by several conferences held in London between 1900 and 1923. The movement gave birth to Organization of African Union in 1963 which later changed its name to African Union.Full Answer >
The Iron Curtain was a physical and symbolic structure used by the Soviet Union to isolate itself from surrounding eastern and central European nations after World War II. The Iron Curtain served as a way for the Soviet Union to isolate itself politically, militarily and ideologically from other nations in Europe. The Curtain gave the Soviet Union a protective barrier to thwart military attacks, but also served as a symbolic gesture that the Soviet Union had no desire to make any contact with other nations.Full Answer >