Vladimir Lenin led the Russian Bolsheviks in a successful takeover of the provisional government that had been created when Nicholas II abdicated the throne a few months earlier in the face of mass protests and riots against his rule. Known as the "October Revolution," the 1917 change of government that occurred when Lenin and the Bolsheviks stormed the Winter Palace on the night of October 26 led to the creation of the first socialist state with Lenin as its head. Lenin went on to survive two assassination attempts, and he remained the leader of the Communist Party and Premier of the Soviet Union until his death from a stroke in 1924.Know More
The October Revolution was not the first Bolshevik attempt to gain control of the Russian government. Lenin and his supporters attempted to take power earlier that same year in July, but the attempt failed. Lenin was forced to flee to Finland as a result of the failed takeover, but continued to direct and encourage the Bolshevik uprising while remaining in hiding across the Finnish border. Lenin returned to Russia in October and directed the successful Bolshevik takeover of the government from a hidden base of operations within the Smolny Institute in St. Petersburg.
Under Lenin's administration, the former Russian Empire was transformed into the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1917 and became the Soviet Union in 1922. In addition to his role as a political leader, Lenin was also known as a political theorist. Although based on Marxism, Lenin's political theories are commonly referred to as "Leninism."Learn more in World War 1
The Zimmerman telegram was a communication from German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican government meant to persuade Mexico to form an alliance with Germany during World War I. It played a vital role in inflaming the American people against Germany and pushing President Woodrow Wilson to declare war on Germany. Shortly after the telegram became public, the United States entered the war on the side of the Allies.Full Answer >
Militarism was a cause of World War I, as European nations raced towards building up their defenses and weapons. This was especially prevalent in Germany, but there were also militaristic endeavors in Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Russia.Full Answer >
Although French public opinion toward women as a whole tended to consider them as wives and mothers, many French women had different ideas and were actively involved in all parts of the Revolution. Regardless of public opinion, women made many important strides to demonstrate their independence during this time of political change.Full Answer >
England's enforcement of the Navigation Acts in the North American colonies during the second half of the 18th century helped mobilize the colonial population into developing into a broader and more unified movement directed toward independence. The American colonists perceived the Navigation Acts, which prohibited trade with countries other than England, as a direct threat to their economic system. By joining together and forming nonconsumption and non-importation agreements to protest the Navigation Acts, a large portion of the colonial population, which had previously been inactive politically, began to take part in the growing independence movement.Full Answer >