Known for non-violent civil disobedience, Mahatma Gandhi was the preeminent political and spiritual leader of India during the nation's struggle for independence from Great Britain. Gandhi assumed the leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1922 after organizing farmers, urban laborers and peasants in protests against discrimination and excessive land taxes. His continuing efforts toward achieving independence ultimately led to England transferring power to a partitioned India in 1947.
Gandhi was arrested on March 10, 1922 and convicted of sedition. He served 2 years of a 6-year sentence and, after his release, worked toward resolving a split that had caused the Indian National Congress to break into two opposing factions while he was imprisoned. He also attempted to bridge the differences between Hindus and Muslims in the independence movement.
In 1930, Gandhi led the highly publicized Salt March, in which he and thousands of supporters marched more than 240 miles to the sea to make salt in defiance of a new British tax on the much-used commodity. Although more than 60,000 people were arrested in the mass protest, this campaign proved to be highly effective in strengthening the independence movement and drawing worldwide attention.
After World War II broke out in 1939, Gandhi intensified the efforts being made toward the removal of British rule in the "Quit India" campaign. This was the most forceful and widespread stage of the independence movement and resulted in the arrests of Gandhi and other Indian leaders on August 9, 1942. At the end of the war, however, Britain provided a clear indication that power would soon be transferred. With this promise of independence, Gandhi called off the struggle and about 100,000 political prisoners held by British authorities were subsequently released.Learn More
The Great Leap Forward refers to Chairman Mao's 1958 plan to modernize China's economy to rival that of the United States in 30 years. His key concerns for development were agriculture and industry.Full Answer >
The People's Republic of China's stated goal in invading Tibet in 1950, sometimes referred to as a re-annexation, was to liberate the Tibetans from a repressive system of feudalism and to improve economic development and education within the region. The leader of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, also stood to obtain political benefits from the international community, such as a recognition of legitimacy for the new government, by reclaiming the region without any visible interference from foreign powers or organizations. The re-annexation of the region carried a symbolic meaning for the Chinese Communist Party and helped to extend the spirit of confidence gained after their victory in the civil war fought against the Nationalists.Full Answer >
The lotus is the national flower of India and represents absolute reality. This flower blossoms one petal at a time under the rays of the sun. The lotus grows in many Asian countries in an array of colors including white, red, pink, blue and purple.Full Answer >
In contemporary history, physical education in the Philippines developed into the Bureau of Physical Education and School Sports. The nation's Executive Order No. 81 series of 1999 then integrated BPESS into the Philippine Sports Commission, which has since assumed BPESS's departmental roles.Full Answer >