Shays’ Rebellion exposed the imperfections of political, social and economic life in post-Revolutionary Massachusetts and the United States more broadly. The rebellion took place in Northampton, Massachusetts in 1786 under the leadership of voter and discontented Massachusetts citizen Daniel Shays.
The seeds for rebellion were sown in post-war Massachusetts, which saw unrest and discontent throughout its newly settled state boundaries in the late 1780s. The movement began with rural farmers, who were charged with high taxes and received relatively low wages; this combination led many into debt traps and prevented them from establishing new farms. Massachusetts, unlike other states, did not implement economic and political measures to aid its farmers, such as passing pro-debtor laws and printing more paper money. As a result, Shays, joined by fellow outraged farmers, led the first major rebellion in post-Revolutionary United States. Fueled by their anger, Shays and his coalition forced several local courts to close and turned their attention to preventing then-governor James Bowdoin from being re-elected. Their tactics worked; Governor Bowdoin did not retain his position, Massachusetts was forced to adopt pro-debtor laws and regulations and the movement inspired economic reform nationwide to benefit lower-income citizens, such as farmers, by giving them greater economic opportunities.