Timbuktu was considered a very important place due to its geographic position in West Africa as a major economic city during the 15th and 16th centuries. It was also considered a vitally important city for the spread of Islam in Africa, due to the efforts of the University of Sankore.Know More
The city, located in Mali, was founded in the 5th century, and within 1,000 years became the hub of trade within the region. It was built at the crossroads of major trade routes, and was a popular place for scholars and architects to network with the artistic and intellectual elite.
The University of Sankore held 180 Koranic schools and enrolled over 25,000 students during the 15th and 16th centuries. These students spread Islam throughout West Africa. The city itself had a population of 100,000 people by the end of the 16th century.
Within the city are three mosques of historical importance: Djingareyber, Sankore and Sidi Yahia. The Djingareyber is the oldest of the mosques, dating back to 1325. The Sankore and Sidi Yahia mosques were both constructed in the early 15th century, but all three were rebuilt by Imam Al Aqib in the late 16th century.
The city was named a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1988, and in 2012 it was moved to the "in danger" list, meaning the city's historical architecture is under threat.Learn more in Modern History
Social life in the southern colonies was based on the strict social class system in place at the time, so activities varied for those colonists who were wealthy versus those who were poor, and for those who were free versus indentured servants or slaves. With no large cities in the colonies, social life revolved around plantation and farm life.Full Answer >
The Normandy landings, also known as D-Day, took place on June 6, 1944; military units from the United States, United Kingdom and Canada (Allied Forces) were the primary belligerent forces involves with this military engagement against German Nazi forces. Air, land and sea forces collaborated for this operation, which involved a formal landing on the shore in Normandy, France, from which ground forces, including tanks and other armored vehicles, were deployed. The Allied Forces presented a much larger fighting force than the Germans had stationed in the area, and combatants from the French Resistance, which fought back against German occupation of their country, joined in the fight.Full Answer >
The Russian Revolution refers to a series of revolutionary actions that took place between March 8, 1917 and Nov. 8, 1917. It started with the February Revolution and ended with the October, or Bolshevik, Revolution. Both are named according to the Julian calendar, which is 13 days behind the Gregorian.Full Answer >
The Napoleonic Code is the French system of laws first put in place by the French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte and made effective on March 21, 1804. The laws abolish noble privilege, grant freedom of religion and direct that government jobs be given to the most qualified.Full Answer >