The most notable outcomes of the Berlin Conference in 1884 and 1885 are Articles 34 and 35 of the Berlin Act. These articles address the possession and occupation of the coasts and hinterlands of Africa.Know More
The Berlin Conference was headed by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. Initially convened to address the humanitarian issues that were brought about due to the slave trade, it preoccupied itself with the greater issues of the possession and occupation of a land that was abundant in resources and strategically important.
Article 34 of the Berlin Act introduces the doctrine of the “spheres of influence.” Any European country claiming possession of African coastline had to inform the other nations of its intentions. Otherwise, the claim would not be recognized. The "sphere of influence" also granted the claimant possession of the hinterlands. Article 35 of the Berlin Act addressed the occupation of Africa by introducing the doctrine of "effective occupation." This doctrine required the occupying nation to prove that it had the ability to protect existing interests.
The division of Africa through the implementation of international 'rules' made the conquest and exploitation of Africa less bloody and minimized the potential for violent disputes and war between European nations. However, it never included or considered the indigenous peoples or governments in its discussions of sovereignty.Learn more about Modern Europe
The Berlin Conference brought together 14 European powers and the United States to establish ground rules for the colonization of Africa. Known as the "Scramble for Africa," the conference was organized by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck and led to the establishment of European colonies across Africa.Full Answer >
Some of the outcomes of the English Civil War were the end of the personal-rule monarchy, the establishment of a commonwealth government and the rise of Oliver Cromwell to a leadership role that is often viewed as resembling a military dictatorship. One of the consequences of the war was Cromwell's campaign against Catholics and Royalists in Ireland and the confiscation of their lands to pay off the debts of the English Parliament, a long-lasting historical memory that has helped fuel Irish and English strife into modern times. Although the monarchy was restored in 1660 by the ascension of the Stuart dynasty to the throne 2 years after Cromwell's death, an additional and key outcome of the English Civil War was that it established the principle of an English king requiring Parliamentary consent in order to govern.Full Answer >
The Munich Conference, held in September 1938, resulted in an agreement signed by Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany that ceded the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. The resolution was signed in an attempt to avoid war. However, Hitler continued to invade territories after the Munich Conference which ultimately led to the outbreak of World War II.Full Answer >
The Berlin Wall, which surrounded West Berlin, was 96 miles long. Of this perimeter, the border between West Berlin and surrounding East Germany was 69.5 miles, while the border between East and West Berlin was 26.8 miles.Full Answer >