According to History Matters, the Supreme Court's 1886 ruling in the case Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway Company v. Illinois overturned a previous case that allowed states to regulate railroads. It led to the formation of the Interstate Commerce Commission in 1887. The case asserted the Constitution's authority that the federal government regulates interstate commerce and not the states.Know More
At issue were fees paid to the state of Illinois by the railroad company. Illinois charged the railway more money to transport goods from Gillman, Ill., to New York than from Peoria, Ill., to New York even though Gillman was 86 miles closer to the destination. The state of Illinois wanted the right to charge the transportation company for the Illinois portion of its journey. The Supreme Court had no issue with cargo or passenger runs that stayed within Illinois' borders, but took issue with the longer journey to another state.
The railroad claimed it was discriminated against with regards to higher fees. The Supreme Court agreed and deemed the corporation had civil rights as enumerated under the Fourteenth Amendment, even though the amendment pertained to freed slaves. The court also believed that the railroad participated in interstate commerce because the journey started in Illinois and ended in New York. This case effectively deregulated the railroad industry within each state.Learn more in US History
Legal segregation began in 1896 when the Supreme Court sanctioned legal separation of the black and white races in the ruling H.A. Plessy v. J.H. Ferguson, but the decision was overruled in 1954. The Supreme Court in 1896 stated that separate but equal facilities did not violate the 14th Amendment; however, it changed its mind thanks to the decision stemming from Brown v. Board of Education in 1954.Full Answer >
Famous federalists were authors of the Federalist Papers: Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay; John Adams, second president of the United States; and John Marshall, chief justice of the Supreme Court. It can be said that the majority of the Founding Fathers were originally federalists, including Thomas Jefferson.Full Answer >
The judicial powers of the president of the United States are the power to pardon and grant reprieves, the power to appoint federal judges and the power to appoint justices to the Supreme Court. The power to appoint judges and justices is limited in that those appointments must be approved by Congress. Conversely, the power to pardon and grant reprieves is quite broad.Full Answer >
Based on data released by the FBI in 2013, the top cities in the United States in regard to violent crime are Flint, Mich.; Detroit, Mich.; Oakland, Calif.; Bridgeport, Conn.; New Orleans, La., Cleveland, Ohio; St. Louis, Mo.; Jackson, Miss.; Baltimore, Md. and Newark, N.J. The FBI measures the numbers of murders, forcible rapes and robberies as compared to the total population of each city.Full Answer >