Causes of the 1905 revolution in Russia included discontent among industrial workers and rural peasants, discrimination against Jews and other minorities, student unrest, the rise of socialism and a humiliating defeat in the war against Japan. Additionally, the repression of the Tsarist regime created a state of great fear and discontent in the country.Know More
The first manifestation of the 1905 revolution occurred on January 9, when a group of thousands of unarmed protesters led by Father Georgy Gapon marched toward the Winter Palace of Tsar Nicolas II. The march included many women, children and elderly. The group of marchers was first charged upon by the cavalry and then shot at by the infantry, resulting in over 200 deaths and 800 injuries.
In reaction to the massacre, which became known as Bloody Sunday, a wave of strikes swept the country. These strikes included not only industrial and railway workers, but also of army and navy personnel. Armed forces mutinied against their officers, which is exemplified by the famous mutiny on the Battleship Potemkin. In the countryside, peasants seized the land of the wealthy and burned their homes. By mid-October there was a general strike in most major cities. The turmoil spread to non-Russian parts of the Tsar's empire, including Finland, Poland, Georgia and the Baltic provinces.
At first, the Tsar favored responding with force, but the revolution became so widespread that he was compelled to offer concessions. He created a constitutional monarchy and a multi-party system, convened a state legislature, and enacted the Russian Constitution of 1906. However, many of the revolutionary leaders were arrested and executed, and the Tsar regained the loyalty of the army and used it to help end the uprising.Learn more about Modern Europe
The most widely documented significant outcome of the Russian Revolution of 1917 is the fall of the Russian Empire and the beginning of Marxian socialism under Vladimir Lenin and his Bolshevik revolutionaries. This marked the beginning of a new era in Russia, especially regarding its political and economic relations with other nation-states.Full Answer >
The Bolshevik Revolution refers to the second revolution that occurred in Russia in October 1917 led by Lenin and the Bolshevik party. The revolution took place on Oct. 25, 1917, and involved Bolshevik troops seizing key locations in the Russian capital of Petrograd from the provisional government.Full Answer >
Some of the outcomes of the English Civil War were the end of the personal-rule monarchy, the establishment of a commonwealth government and the rise of Oliver Cromwell to a leadership role that is often viewed as resembling a military dictatorship. One of the consequences of the war was Cromwell's campaign against Catholics and Royalists in Ireland and the confiscation of their lands to pay off the debts of the English Parliament, a long-lasting historical memory that has helped fuel Irish and English strife into modern times. Although the monarchy was restored in 1660 by the ascension of the Stuart dynasty to the throne 2 years after Cromwell's death, an additional and key outcome of the English Civil War was that it established the principle of an English king requiring Parliamentary consent in order to govern.Full Answer >
The causes of the 1917 Russian Revolution were the long-term effects of poverty, industrial revolution, ineffective rule and growing political unrest. As a result, World War I became the catalyst that sparked the revolt.Full Answer >