In 1767, Parliament introduced the Townshend Acts in the American colonies to cover the expenses of running the colonial government. From 1756 to 1763, the British government had incurred major financial debts during the Seven Years' War, and earlier efforts to regain those funds failed when the Stamp Act caused colonial revolt and was repealed. British legislators also believed an indirect tax would be better received than another direct tax.
Many American colonists, such as Benjamin Franklin, resisted unfair taxation because they had no representation or vote in Parliamentary matters. Colonists had previously set a precedent of rejecting direct taxes imposed on internal goods by the authority of Parliament, instead of the colonies' own representative assemblies. For example, the Stamp Act was considered unconstitutional because it taxed paper goods in the colonies for the sole purpose of raising money for the British government.
In contrast, the Townshend Acts were envisioned as an indirect tax, placing duties on popular imported goods, such as tea, glass, paint, lead and paper. The British government aimed to use the Townshend Acts and future legislation to reassert dominance over the colonies. Yet, the colonists still viewed these new taxes as an abuse of power and circulated a letter encouraging their representative assemblies to take action against the Townshend Acts. By April 1770, all of the Townshend Acts were repealed, except the tea tax.Learn More
One prominent example of racial segregation in the United States was the Jim Crow laws, a series of policies in effect from 1876 to 1965. Jim Crow laws segregated people of color from whites in housing, jobs, schools, public transportation, public spaces, military service, prisons and more.Full Answer >
Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard was an American military officer who was appointed the first brigadier general in the Confederate States Army. Beauregard oversaw the bombardment of Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, in which the first shots of the American Civil War were fired. The fort's surrender catapulted Beauregard to public acclaim, and he became the first military hero of the Confederacy.Full Answer >
According to the Bill of Rights Institute, America's Great Compromise was responsible for creating a dual system of congressional representation. Each state has two senators while representation in the House of Representatives is based on state population.Full Answer >
Some famous Native American scientists are John Herrington, Mary Ross, Dr. Jani Ingram and Dr. David Burgess. The American Indian Science and Engineering Society, an organization of Native Americans in the science, technology, engineering and math fields, had 3,000 members as of December 2014.Full Answer >