The Boxer Rebellion in China, which was ultimately suppressed by the Eight-Nation Alliance of foreign powers in 1901, severely weakened the Qing Dynasty and its defense capabilities, forced the Chinese to accept the garrisoning of foreign troops within their borders and helped fuel a growing nationalist fervor. Much of the international expeditionary force that invaded China to suppress the rebellion stayed on after the fighting ended and engaged in massive looting, confiscation of property and extreme punitive actions against suspected supporters of the uprising, including civilians. China was also required to pay reparations that would have amounted to more than $60 billion based on a 2010 purchasing power parity.Know More
The Boxer Rebellion, also referred to as the Yihetuan Movement, began in 1898 when opposition to foreign interests operating within China took the form of armed attacks on foreign diplomats, business personnel, soldiers and missionaries. The reaction of the Chinese government was divided and factions of the ruling Qing Dynasty initially supported the Boxers. The Eight-Nation Alliance, consisting of foreign powers which included England, France, Russia, the United States and Japan, captured the major Chinese cities of Beijing and Peking and, by September of 1901, the conflict officially ended when China accepted the Alliance's settlement terms known as the Boxer Protocol.
The Boxer Rebellion took its name from an English mistranslation of a version of the movement's original name, the Fists of Righteous Harmony. There has been some debate among historians regarding which of the terms, "rebellion," "uprising" or "movement," most accurately represents the true nature of the Chinese side of the conflict.Learn more in Modern Asia
The Chinese Revolution of 1911, also known as the Xinhai Revolution, ended the Qing Dynasty, formed the Republic of China and sparked a lengthy period of ideological and political struggle. Sun Yat-sen, the revolution's leader, was pronounced the first provisional president of the new republic on December 29, 1911 and a new flag, referred to as the Five Races Under One Union flag, was adopted as the emblem of the nation. The last Chinese Emperor, Xuantong Puyi, officially abdicated on February 12, 1912, signaling the beginning of the Chinese Republican Era and the end of 4,000 years of Imperial rule.Full Answer >
China officially became communist on Oct. 1, 1949 after years of internal conflict when Mao Zedong proclaimed it the People's Republic of China. As chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, Mao Zedong, often called Chairman Mao, became the ruler of China until he died in 1976.Full Answer >
The wealth of the Sultan of Brunei is derived from the oil that is found inside the country's borders. According to an article by Business Spectator from Apr. 24, 2014, the Sultan's wealth is estimated to be $20 billion in total.Full Answer >
The Communist Revolution in China was a civil war between the Communist Party of China and the Chinese Nationalist Party that occurred in 1949 and 1950. On Oct. 1, 1949, Communist leader Mao Zedong declared the country was now the People's Republic of China, and the two sides began open warfare. The Communists quickly gained the upper hand, taking over the country while the Nationalists retreated to Taiwan.Full Answer >