The pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs for ancient pharaohs. Because they were considered both human and divine, pharaohs were believed to become mediators between gods and humans after death. Since a part of the spirit supposedly remained with the body, the entombed body was mummified and surrounded with objects needed in the afterlife, including furniture, food and gold.
Though earlier kings built rectangular tombs called mastabas that were precursors to the pyramids, the first real pyramid was built around 2630 B.C. for a pharaoh named Djoser. Located at Saqqara, it was known as the step pyramid, as it consisted of mastabas of decreasing size stacked on top of each other.
The most famous pyramids are the pyramids of Giza, the largest of which is known as the Great Pyramid. It was built for the pharaoh Khufu, or Cheops, and was originally over 480 feet high, which makes it the largest pyramid in the world. Smaller pyramids nearby were built for Khufu's sons and queens. Many thousands of laborers had to move the millions of stones necessary to build these structures. As the power of pharaohs and belief in their divinity waned, pyramids dwindled in size. The last known pyramid builder was Pepy II, who reigned from 2278 to 2184 B.C.
Robbers, both ancient and modern, removed many of the bodies and implements from the pyramids over the years. However, what remained, as well as the hieroglyphics in the tombs, provided a wealth of information about the culture, religion and customs of ancient Egypt.Learn More
There are many pyramids in Egypt, but the oldest known pyramid is the Pyramid of Djoser, which finished construction in 2611 B.C. The most well-known pyramids are the Giza Pyramids, which finished construction in 2504 B.C.Full Answer >
No historian knows for certain how the pyramids were built, so there are a few different theories about how Egyptians completed the different phases. Typically, historians agree that workers pulled blocks on skids, though how they kept the sand smooth enough for transport is still up for debate. Ramp and pulley systems were also important, according to Richard Koslow.Full Answer >
There are over 100 pyramids in Egypt, and the majority are located around the city of Cairo, including the famous pyramids at Giza. One notable exception to this is the pyramid at Abydos in southern Egypt.Full Answer >
It is not definitively known why the ancient Egyptians stopped building pyramids. Well-known structural engineer and Egyptian construction specialist Peter James theorizes that the Egyptians quit building pyramids because they quickly began showing cracks and imperfections. James believes that these imperfections in the pyramids are caused by what the Egyptians thought were improvements in construction techniques.Full Answer >