Sparta and Athens were both Greek city states that dominated ancient Greece during the fifth century BCE. Each city state had at least a partially elected government and a strong military, and both relied on the labor of slaves.Know More
Sparta and Athens had similar forms of government; both city states were in part governed by elected assemblies. However, the top rulers of Athens were elected, while Sparta's were not. Athens was fundamentally a democracy; Sparta was an oligarchy.
Both Sparta and Athens were militarily strong, though in different ways. Sparta's military strength rested in its army, composed of the best-trained and most powerful warriors of ancient times. In contrast, while the Athenian army was almost as large as the Spartan, the Athenian navy was far more advanced and dominated the Mediterranean Sea.
Both city states had extremely large slave populations, with each home to about 100,000 slaves. However, Sparta had only about 8,000 citizens, while Athens had between 40,000 and 100,000. Slaves were at the bottom of the social order in both cities, and military men were at the top. In Sparta the military professionals were the only ones who had the right to vote; in Athens, the aristocrats were wealthy landowners who were also military leaders.Learn More
There were several Spartan social classes, including the Spartiate or Homoioi, Perioeci and Helots. There were additional classes outside those that lived or were born in Sparta, such as the Trophimoi, who were foster sons allowed to come and study in Sparta.Full Answer >
One of the main reasons that ancient Greece fell to Macedonia during the 4th century B.C. was the superior tactical planning employed against Greece by King Philip II of Macedon. In addition to reorganizing and strengthening the Macedonian military forces, King Philip II relied upon diplomatic strategies, bribery, trickery and the information provided by his intelligence service to gain a significant advantage over the Greek city-states. Philip II was also adept at playing his enemies against each other, and the military maxim "divide and conquer" has been credited to him.Full Answer >
Euclid was a Greek mathematician who developed a theorem that was later named in his honor as the Euclidean Algorithm. He developed a version of the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, and he showed that no finite collection of primes contains them all.Full Answer >
Archimedes discovered many math and science concepts, including the Archimedes Screw and siege engines. Much of his work contributed to the development of later ideas such as hydrostatics, levers and many math concepts.Full Answer >