Sparta and Athens were both Greek city states that dominated ancient Greece during the fifth century BCE. Each city state had at least a partially elected government and a strong military, and both relied on the labor of slaves.Know More
Sparta and Athens had similar forms of government; both city states were in part governed by elected assemblies. However, the top rulers of Athens were elected, while Sparta's were not. Athens was fundamentally a democracy; Sparta was an oligarchy.
Both Sparta and Athens were militarily strong, though in different ways. Sparta's military strength rested in its army, composed of the best-trained and most powerful warriors of ancient times. In contrast, while the Athenian army was almost as large as the Spartan, the Athenian navy was far more advanced and dominated the Mediterranean Sea.
Both city states had extremely large slave populations, with each home to about 100,000 slaves. However, Sparta had only about 8,000 citizens, while Athens had between 40,000 and 100,000. Slaves were at the bottom of the social order in both cities, and military men were at the top. In Sparta the military professionals were the only ones who had the right to vote; in Athens, the aristocrats were wealthy landowners who were also military leaders.Learn more about Ancient Greece
One of the main reasons that ancient Greece fell to Macedonia during the 4th century B.C. was the superior tactical planning employed against Greece by King Philip II of Macedon. In addition to reorganizing and strengthening the Macedonian military forces, King Philip II relied upon diplomatic strategies, bribery, trickery and the information provided by his intelligence service to gain a significant advantage over the Greek city-states. Philip II was also adept at playing his enemies against each other, and the military maxim "divide and conquer" has been credited to him.Full Answer >
Men in ancient Greece wore a knee-length tunic called a chiton and a cloak called a himation. Different types of tunics and cloaks were worn for specialized uses such as exercise and horseback riding. Ancient Greeks generally remained barefoot at home but wore boots, slippers or sandals outside.Full Answer >
Athens and Sparta were the two most powerful city-states in ancient Greece;also known as polis, the ancient Greek city-states were individual, autonomous cities that were self-governing and independent from other governments in their local areas. Because these two powerful city-states were so autonomous, they had many cultural differences and Athenians and Spartans, while having many similarities as Greeks including religion and language, were culturally different as people. For instance, the Spartans were renowned for their fierce warriors and militaristic culture while the Athenians were known for their academic pursuits, creating much of the art and academic enlightenment that is still associated with ancient Greek people as a whole.Full Answer >
The Spartan council of elders, or Gerousia, consisted of 28 aristocratic men and two kings who worked collectively in an oligarchy to submit proposals and provide counsel to assemblymen. Each member was aged over 60 years old and selected by the assembly, or Ecclesia, based upon his strength of virtue.Full Answer >