The crusades were ultimately won in the East by the Muslims when the Bahri Mamluks conquered Acre in 1291. While crusades were mounted even after this point, political witch-hunts mounted against the Knights Templar by King Philip IV of France made further major crusades in the Levant impractical.Know More
The crusades began when, after over 200 years of Muslim attacks on Western states including Rome itself, the Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus requested help in reclaiming land in Asia Minor that had been taken by the Seljuk Turks. In 1096, Pope Urban II declared an armed pilgrimage to take back Jerusalem. While this crusade succeeded, the lands in question were passed back and forth for two centuries until the Christians were defeated.
In Spain, the 700-year-long Reconquista pushed out the Muslim Moors and reinstated Christianity in 1491. This conflict shared many of the same traits as the Holy Land crusades.Learn more about Middle Ages
There were eight or nine crusades, though only the first four were of any importance. The Crusades were Christian military expeditions mounted to wrest the Holy Land from the Muslims who had conquered it.Full Answer >
The Crusades resulted in an influx of goods, wealth and knowledge into Western Europe from the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world. This influx was one of several factors that caused the Renaissance and Europe's shift from being a technological backwater to the most advanced region in the world.Full Answer >
The Crusades spread Christianity, expanded the territories of many European countries, increased trade, spread knowledge and began an era of persecution and war against non-Christians that continued with the Inquisition. The Crusades also dramatically increased the wealth and power of the Roman Catholic Church.Full Answer >
Numerous social, religious and economic factors contributed to the launch of the Crusades, but primary among these was Europe's growing capacity for conquest. Having recently recovered from the Dark Ages, the nations of Europe were able to launch large-scale military action for the first time in centuries.Full Answer >