The center-to-center dimension for a 45-degree bend is equal to the desired size of the offset times the cosecant 1.414. A cosecant is used to determine the distance between the centers of the two bends used to make an offset. A 45-degree angle has a cosecant of 1.414.
Know MoreAn angle's cosecant is defined as the length of the hypotenuse of a 90-degree triangle divided by the length of the opposite side of the triangle. According to the Porcupine Labor Press, other popular offset angles and their cosecants include 10 degrees with a cosecant of 5.76, 22.5 degrees with a cosecant of 2.6, 30 degrees with a cosecant of 2.0 and 60 degrees with a cosecant of 1.15.
Learn more about PlumbingThe pipe-fitting formula for a 45-degree offset in plumbing is the length of a diagonal connector, known as the travel, times 0.707. To calculate rolling offset, when a pipe changes direction both vertically and horizontally, it is necessary to find the values for true offset, the setback and the diagonal.
Full Answer >Trap size is an important part of toilet flushing, because a small trap size can cause the toilet to plug more frequently. A large trap size, usually considered 2 inches in diameter or greater, allows more material to pass through without clogging the toilet.
Full Answer >Shower curtains come in two standard sizes: 72 inches wide and 72 inches high or 70 inches wide and 70 inches high, depending on the manufacturer. A standard shower curtain fits a standard 5-foot bathtub. The additional 10 or 12 inches is intended to accommodate the tub ledges.
Full Answer >To calculate the water flow rate through a given pipe size, multiply the area of the inner cross-section of the pipe by the velocity of the water. The velocity of the water is required for this calculation.
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