The chemical formula of household bleach is NaClO. Its chemical name is sodium hypochlorite.
Though household bleach generally all has the same formula, in chemistry, bleaching can be done with a number of different substances, including hydrogen peroxide. According to Info Please, the process of bleaching means to whiten certain fibers, such as cloth or paper, with chemicals. Sunlight can also bleach fibers.
According to How Stuff Works, household bleach is created by electrically charging saltwater. Since the chemical components of salt are NaCl (sodium and chloride), when it is mixed with water (hydrogen and oxygen) and given a charge, it produces chlorine gas and sodium hydroxide, which combined form bleach. Bleach works both as a disinfectant and a stain remover.