The depth of footings is determined by the depth of the frost line. The top of the footing must be poured below the frost line to maintain stability.
The depth of the frost line can vary by location. In northern states, the frost line may be as deep as 60 inches or more. Southern locations may have a frost line of less than 20 inches. The poured depth of the footing should be equal to the thickness of the wall that it supports. The width of the footing must be at least twice the width of the wall that it supports.Learn More
To keep a water line from freezing, it needs to be buried below the frost line.The frost line is the depth below the surface of the ground at which the water in soil is expected to freeze.Full Answer >
Lean concrete is a mix where the amount of cement is lower than the amount of liquid present in the strata. This makes it ideal as a base layer where other kinds of concrete are placed on top. It is good for providing a flat bottom in uneven or dirt terrain.Full Answer >
Color existing concrete by cleaning the surface, applying a transparent stain. After 4 hours, inspect the concrete to determine if you need a second coat and applying it. After applying the sealer, allow sufficient time for the sealer to cure before allowing traffic on the surface.Full Answer >
Cut concrete by consulting the home's mechanical prints to determine any obstacles, using a diamond blade on a circular saw to make the cut and breaking away the cut concrete with a sledge. The cutting process is slow, and cutting through a concrete floor should be the last resort.Full Answer >