The pipe-fitting formula for a 45-degree offset in plumbing is the length of a diagonal connector, known as the travel, times 0.707. To calculate rolling offset, when a pipe changes direction both vertically and horizontally, it is necessary to find the values for true offset, the setback and the diagonal.
True offset is found by squaring the offset and adding the square of the rise value to equal the true offset squared. The square root is then found to determine true offset. With true offset determined, a pre-existing table can be used to find setback and diagonal values.
Plumbing often involves working on pipes hidden behind walls, in small utility rooms or in other tight spaces. Plumbers often work without direct access to pipes, for instance when working with underground sewer lines. In some cases, cameras are sent in to assess problems, and then plumbers use pumps lowered with cables to execute pipe replacements.
Understanding some math, especially geometry, is necessary for plumbers who must calculate exact angles for pipes and their fittings. The Pythagorean theorem is used in plumbing to find the value for true offset. The theorem holds that in a right triangle, the square of the side opposite the right angle equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides.Learn More
Using a high-pressure water jet with a psi of 4,000 pushes away the blockage, according to SFGate. If there is a root clog in the sewer line, flushing copper sulphate or a root-killing foam in the toilet effectively dissolves the blockage. An auger is another effective tool in removing matter.Full Answer >
An above-ground, or mound, septic system uses a mound of special sand placed on top of the ground to replace the function of a soil leaching field. This type of septic system is used to handle sewage when the chosen location does not have sufficiently deep, well-drained soil to build a standard system.Full Answer >
A water softener works by using polystyrene beads to remove calcium and magnesium from hard water. The calcium and magnesium ions in hard water are replaced by sodium ions during this process. This turns hard water into soft water.Full Answer >
The "Standard Specification for Poly(Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40, 80, and 120 guide," also listed as the ASTM D1785, lists the outside and inside diameters and wall thicknesses for PVC and CPVC pipes between 1/2-inch to 16-inches in size. The most common are Schedule 40 and 80 pipes.Full Answer >