The prime factors of 6 are 2 and 3. The number 6 cannot be factorized into any other combination of prime numbers. A prime number is a whole number larger than 1 which can only be divided by 1 and itself.
Factors are the numbers which, when multiplied with each other, produce another number. Prime factorization of a number determines the prime factors of that particular number. MathsIsFun terms prime numbers as the "basic building blocks" of numbers, and states that prime factorization is a very useful method while dealing with large numbers, for example, in the study of cryptography.