Q:

# How do I read Roman numerals?

A:

In order to read Roman numerals, make sure to know what each symbol means, when numbers add or subtract, and how to handle somewhat-larger numbers.

Know More

## Keep Learning

Credit: Joelle Icard Photodisc Getty Images

1. Know each symbol

In Roman numerals, M equals 1,000, D equals 500, C equals 100, L equals 50, X equals 10, and I equals one.

2. Add numbers when bigger is followed by smaller

When a larger number is followed by a smaller number, such as XI, the numbers are added. Thus, XI = 10 + 1 = 11.

3. Subtract numbers when smaller is followed by bigger

When it is the opposite, such as IX, the smaller number is subtracted from the bigger number. So, IX = 10 - 1 = 9.

4. Use only three of the same symbol together

When using multiple numbers of the same value, no more than three of the same symbol should appear together. If four are needed, it should be that value subtracted from the next-largest value. Examples include XL = 40, IV = 4 and CD = 400.

5. Add a bar on top if multiplying by 1,000

For each value above one, placing a bar or vinculum above the number multiplies it by 1,000. For instance, an X with a vinculum is 10,000.

Sources:

## Related Questions

• A:

The Roman numerals for one to five are I, II, III, IV and V. The Roman numeral system assigned number values to certain letters in the Roman alphabet. By combining these letters according to their own placement rules and applying simple arithmetic, the ancient Romans were able to represent a large range of numbers.

Filed Under:
• A:

The equivalent of the number 93 in Roman numerals is XCIII. The Roman numeral system uses letters instead of numbers. The basic Roman numerals up through 100 are as follows: I equals one, V equals five, X equals 10, L equals 50 and C equals 100.

Filed Under:
• A:

The Arabic number "17" is written as "XVII" in Roman numerals. The "X" represents a quantity of ten, the "V" represents a quantity of five, and "I" represents a quantity of one. The sum of the Roman numerals identifies its numeric value.

Filed Under:
• A:

The number 666 is written as DCLXVI in Roman numerals. The letters stand for 500, 100, 50, five and one respectively. There are only seven symbols in Roman numerals.