The relationship between mathematics and science has been studied since ancient times and is characterized by strong interdependence. Mathematics is an essential tool for sciences such as physics and was called "the queen of sciences" by Carl Friedrich Gauss.

One of the first analyses of the relationship between mathematics and other sciences belongs to the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who wrote about the interdependence of mathematics and other exact sciences in his work "Physics." Scholars such as Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton also acknowledged this relationship. Nowadays, mathematics is at the basis of many physics discoveries, such as the superstring theory.