Q:

What are some things that come in groups of 11?

A:

In both soccer and American football, a team may have no more than 11 players on the field. Extremely few commercial products or natural phenomena have any relationship to the number 11.

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In soccer, there is an even 10 players on each side who freely move around the field. The extra player on each team is the goalkeeper, who serves as the last line of defense against scoring attempts.

Walter Camp, who introduced many of the rules of American football, established 11-player teams. He envisioned seven players in the offensive line and four in the back, including the quarterback.

Commercial products are very seldom sold in groups of 11 because the number is one more than 10 and one less than a dozen, or 12. Products sold by the dozen can be packed in three rows of four or two rows of six. The number 10, as the most common mathematical base, is an obvious choice, and products sold this way can be packed in two rows of five. The number 11 is a prime number and does not lend itself to simple packing solutions.

Natural phenomena have little to do with the number 11 for the same general reasons. Natural hexagonal formations use the number 6, and dividing cells are found in powers of 2, but the number 11 has no relationship to these patterns.

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Professional soccer is played between two teams of 11 players each. The game lasts for a total of 90 minutes divided equally into two halves of 45 minutes each. An interval of not more than 15 minutes is allowed between the two halves.

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Each team in a cricket match is composed of 11 players, with one designated as team captain. Both squads are also entitled to keep a reserve player known as a 12th man who may replace a player injured during play.

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In both American and European football, no more than 11 players are allowed on the field at any one time from each team. In American football, teams can substitute players at will, while European soccer restricts substitutions to either three per match or a number agreed upon by both teams.