A coupon rate is calculated by using the formula c(1 + r)^-1 + c(1 + r)^-2 + ... + c(1 - r)^-y + B(1 + r)^-y = P. In this equation, the variable of c represents an annual coupon payment that is calculated in dollars, and not a percentage. The variable Y equals the number of years to maturity, the variable B stands for the par value and the variable of P represents the purchase price.
Coupon rate is the calculation of a yield that is paid by a fixed income security. The preceding equation in layman's terms fundamentally represents the division of the sum of the annual coupon payments of the security divided by the par value of the bond.
Other important terms that an investor should be familiar with while using this calculation include the current yield and yield to maturity. The current yield is an actual payment, and the annual payout of the current market price, noted as a percentage. The yield to maturity represents the rate of return from all of the payoffs, whether it be a gain or loss as well as the coupon and capital gain. Another way to describe the yield to maturity is to refer to it as the best prediction or measure of the return rate itself. All of these variables need exact calculation in order to correctly figure the amount of the coupon rate.