The adaptations the earthworm has made to its underground life include lacking eyes and ears that can be clogged with soil. It also has a long, tube-like, segmented body which helps it push through the soil.Know More
The segments themselves, save the one near the mouth and anus, have tiny hairs that help to steady the animal as it moves. The earthworm moves by expansion and contraction.
The skin has pores that exude a fluid that keeps the earthworm's skin moist and protects it from the sharp edges of gravel or sand. The fluid also allows the worm to move easily through the soil by lubricating the tunnels that the worm itself digs. The earthworm also injects air into the tunnels as it progresses.
When the earthworm rests, its mouth is protected by a flap of skin called the prostomium. In some kinds of earthworm, this appendage can be flexible enough to grab leaves and blades of grass. The prostomium also serves as a sensory organ for the blind earthworm.
The earthworm lacks lungs and breathes through its skin. Oxygen enters the capillaries and is transported to the tissues in the body. The same thing happens with water and minerals. Many earthworms can also regenerate parts of their bodies if they've been damaged.Learn more about Worms
The clitellum of an earthworm is located about one-third of the way down its body. Only sexually mature earthworms have clitella. Clitella are usually white or have an orange hue. The clitellum secretes a substance that becomes a hardened cocoon, which houses the eggs and sperm after mating.Full Answer >
The earthworm has a nervous system that is segmented like the rest of its body. The brain is found above the pharynx, and it is important for movement. Without the brain, the earthworm would constantly move.Full Answer >
The excretory organs of the earthworm are the nephridia. The earthworm is an invertebrate animal called an annelid. An annelid is an animal that is made up of many rings that are joined together; each ring is called a segment. Each segment of the earthworm contains two nephridia.Full Answer >
Earthworms have four pairs of setae on each segment except the first and last. These setae are stiff, tiny bristles and help the worm move forward in conjunction with its muscles. Each pair of setae is used as a worm explores its environment.Full Answer >