The main differences between a male and female quail lie in the way that they are colored. A female quail generally has a lighter and spotted breast while the male has very few spots on their rust-colored breast.
The heads of the quail are also indicative of their gender. A male quail has a a slightly rust-colored head and tends to look more like a robin than his female counterpart. The female quail has a face that is a light brown and is very similar in color to the feathers that are on her breasts. Neither female or male have spotted colors on their facial features. The darkest colors on the males are around their eye sockets. Some may be spotted around their breasts, but the spots will be light and scattered in comparison to the female spots.
Quails are different than many other birds because they do not require a long period of time before they are able to lay eggs. While birds like chickens can take up to 6 months before they begin hatching eggs, quail females will begin hatching eggs at around 6 weeks. This is another major factor for determining the gender of a quail because males do not lay eggs.