The white-tailed deer population in Indiana was estimated to be between 500,000 and 1,000,000 individuals as of 2011. Population has trended downward in the three years following, with no formal estimate of the current population.
In deer management, formal estimates are not as important as knowing the way the population is trending. Deer were reintroduced into Indiana in 1934 after the native population of animals was driven to extinction. Indiana forests have suffered from deer overpopulation since the 1990s. The population has been dropping since a peak in 1992, due to the issuing of permits for the hunting of antler-less deer. The population remains large enough that annual hunting culls of 100,000 animals or more have been recorded for every year between 2001 and 2013.