Sponges primarily use chemicals to protect themselves, and the chemicals are either toxic or just taste bad. This not only prevents predation but also competition, as the chemicals they release prevent other organisms from growing near them. Individual species have other strategies, such as burrowing into corals, rocks or molluscs to gain protection.Know More
Another strategy many corals use to keep predators such as sea stars away is shedding tiny bits of their skeletal elements, called spicules, onto the sea floor. These can accumulate in a thick layer, deterring predators that must crawl to reach them. Not all sponges have a direct defense mechanism. Glass sponges do not produce any toxins, but they live in the very deep ocean where predators are rare.
Despite their defenses, sponges can only make slight movements, when they can move at all. They are vulnerable to any organisms that can overcome their defenses and are prey to many species of turtles, fish and invertebrates. Sponges can partially benefit from predation, however, as fragments of sponge left behind by predators can often survive and re-establish themselves as independent organisms. Their extremely simple cell-level organization means they can often survive even severe damage caused by predators or environmental effects.Learn more in Marine Life
Penguins are not able to breathe underwater; however, all 17 of the penguin species can hold their breath for as long as 15 minutes. This amazing capability allows them to dive deep within the ocean to find food.Full Answer >
Scientists believe that there are over 1 million species of animals and plants living in the ocean. Some speculate that there are 9 million species that have not yet been discovered.Full Answer >
Coral is a colorless marine animal that lives on the ocean floor and can be red, orange and other colors. Any color that appears to be present on coral is a buildup of algae that live on the coral. Like other animals of the sea, coral can change color with emotion.Full Answer >
Narwhals live in the Arctic Ocean in the areas near Russia and the Atlantic Ocean. They have been found as far east as eastern Russia and as far south as Greenland.Full Answer >